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Lecture

philosophy lecture 3

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 1F94
Professor
Brian Lightbody
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture3: JUDGING&EVALUATINGARGUMENTS Tuesday,October 04, 2011 5:20PM • Wenowcometo the4th componentofphilosophicalmethodologywhichahstodowiththeevaluation ofarguments • Aswealreadyknow,philosophersfirstclarifytheirconceptsanddefinitions.Theythensetupan hypothesistotesttheconcept,finallytheyconstructanargumenttosupporttheirconcept • Philosophicaltextsputsforwardargumentstosupporttheirconceptualtheories • Firstwemaynoticethatthereare twodifferentmeaningsfortheword"argument"inEnglish.Thefirst definitionwouldbewhatRauhutcallsa"verbaldisagreement"(caraccident-argument) • Aphilosophicalargumentissomewhatdifferent.Everyphilosophicalargumentiscomprisedofa premiseorsetofpremisesandaconclusion.Wewilldefineanargumentasfollows:"Anargumentisa seriesofsentencesoneofwhichthe conclusionsis claimedtobe supportedbythe otherpremises" AnExampleofanArgument • Ifitrainsthenthestreetswillbewet(premises1) • Itrained(premises2) • Therefore:thestreetsarewet(conclusion) Thefirstpartof thisargument(theifclause)iscalledtheAntecedent.Thesecondpart(thethenclause) iscalledtheconsequent • Theaboveargumenthasbeenputinto standardform -the premisesarenumberedandtheconclusion isclearlystated • AsRauhutmentions,sometimesitisdifficulttoputanargumentintostandardform. But doingsois absolutelyessentialinordertoclarifythe examples • FromtheVivekananda:"thereisnopastor futureeveninthoughtbecausetothinkityouhave to makeitpresent" • FromSt.Augustine'sDeLiberoArbitrio:"seehowfoolishitistosay:I shouldprefernonexistenceto miserableexistence.Hewhosays,I preferthis tothat, choosessomething.Nonexistenceisnot something,Itis nothing.Therecan be norealchoice whenwhat youchooseis nothing Deductivevs.InductiveArgument • Exampleofadeductiveargument ○ Theworldisstructured,orderedandbeautiful ○ Anythingthatisstructured,orderedandbeautifulmusthavebeendesignedbysomeonetobe ○ Therefore:theworldwasdesigned • Theabovedeductiveargumentisavalidargumentbecauseithasthefollowi
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