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PEKN1P90 Lec #2.docx

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Physical Education and Kinesiology
Nota Klentrou

Skeletal Muscle Structure/Function ­ functions of muscle ­ macroscopic structure ­ microscopic structure o inside the fibers (or muscle cells) o filament structure ­ muscle contraction and mechanics ­ fiber types ­ motor control of movement Functions of Muscle ­ locomotion (how we move) o obvious use ­ stability o need a lot of force to resist gravity and stand upright (posture) ­ communication o facial expressions, writing, speaking, laughing, crying, etc. ­ control of body openings o sphincter muscles ­ heat production o temperature regulation o shivering, sweating General “Gross” Anatomy of a Muscle Terminology Origin ­ muscle attachment to the bone at the stationary end (head) ­ tends to be more proximal Insertion ­ bony attachment at the more mobile end ­ tends to be more distal Belly ­ the thicker middle region (main body) of a muscle Prime Mover (agonist) ­ muscle that produces most of the force for a given movement Antagonist Muscle ­ muscles that produce opposite movements Synergistic Muscle ­ muscles that work together to produce the same movement ­ assists the agonist Macroscopic Structure: Connective Tissue ­ muscle is composed of muscle tissue and connective tissue ­ multiple layer of connective tissue ­ around the entire muscle there is thick connective tissue o Fascia: white connective tissue on the muscle.  most external layer of the muscle  Extension of tendonous tissue  Superficial (subcutaneous) • Separates muscle from skin  Deep • Hold muscles of similar functions together o 3 types of connective tissue – extensions of deep fascia  Epimysium • Layer of connective tissue around entire muscle – deep to superficial fascia • “Epi” means on top  Perimysium • “Peri” means around • connective tissue covering and surrounding a “bundle of muscle fibers”
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