KINE 2P41 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Randomized Controlled Trial, Clinical Trial, Fact Checking

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KINE 2P41  Information and Evidence: Types and Problems – January
26th, 2016
Summary
- Using Power: what do empowered people look like?
- Understanding evidence
Types of information: primary, secondary, tertiary
Bias in evidence
Evidence hierarchies
oRandomized controlled trials
Grossman & MacKenzie: are RCT’s gold
standard?
oWarburton: Systemic Reviews
Physical activity guidelines in Canada
CSEP guidelines – is this the best way to make
a guideline?
Will people use it?
Types of Evidence
- Primary, secondary, tertiary, grey literature
- Primary Sources
Published studies
Written by the people who actually did the research
- Refereed Journals (Peer Reviewed)
A panel of scienti8c experts review the paper, edit the
paper, determine if it is of a high enough standard to be
published
Peer Review: All the Steps
- Have an idea
- Write a proposal to sell and share the idea
- Proposal review by 3-10 experts at a funding agency – only best
way to get money (can take up to 6 months)
- Present results at conferences – open to 100’s of peers
- Publish in a peer reviewed journal
- What is peer review?
3 experts, plus an editor reviews before publishing
(sometimes a year)
oThis is open to criticism of world
The Power of Peer Review
- In University settings, primary source refereed journal articles
always trumps all other sources
A journal is not a Vogue survey, or even Time magazine
oNo peer review
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Secondary Sources
- Written by someone who did not conduct the original research,
but still peer reviewed
- Usually found in
Review articles, editorials
The Warburton ‘systematic review’ of physical activity
guidelines is an example
Warburton Systematic Review
- Warburton did not conduct any ‘original research’
He did not do any experiments, surveys on physical activity
- Warburton did read everyone else’s work on physical activity
Analyse is statistically
Compares and contrasts 8ndings of each paper
Tougher than it looks
oHave to compare methods, statistics used, types of
people in the studies – takes a LONG time
Tertiary Sources
- Textbooks, books
Usually there is an editor who reads things over, makes
sure things are accurate
Is often a couple of academics who read a textbook, but
are not checking every fact
oPurpose is oriented more around ‘would you use this
in your classroom?’
Popular Press Sources
- Time, Newsweek, CNN, etc.
No peer review, no real editing, except to make the story
more dynamic (often at the expense of accuracy)
Even if they have written about a research study, or
interviewed the scientist who conduced the study – it is not
a scienti8c source of information
Web Sites, Blogs, Etc.
- Not even reviewed by an editor or fact checker, as a newspaper
article would be
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