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Lecture 4

Tuesday October 1st 2013 Lecture 4.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLI 2F20
Professor
Blayne Haggart
Semester
Fall

Description
Tuesday October 1 2013 Poli 2F20 Lecture 4: * Neo-conservatism will be on midterm * The “neos”: Neo-realism, neo-liberalism, and neo-conservatism; Constructivism Slide 1: The “Neos” - Neo-realism v. neo-liberalism: Dominant IR debate for last 20 years - Neo-conservatism: Persistent ideological strain in U.S. foreign policy - Shapes what is possible Slide 2: Neo-realism - Usually defined as Waltz’s structural realism (1979) o States are the main actor o They want to survive o Have to rely on self help - Key points: o Struggle for power driven by anarchy, not human nature - Three elements of international system: o Organizing principle: Anarchy (international); hierarchy (domestic) o Units: Sovereign states (what you’re going to focus on) o Distribution of capabilities across units (stronger/weaker)  Military  Tells you what the order is in international relations  Strong do what they can weaker suffer - Neo = new - Only people they can count on is themselves Slide 3: Neo-realism - Assumptions: Force is important and effective o Balance of power is central mechanism for maintaining international order o Determines who gets what o During the cold war o Unipolar, Bi-polar, multi polar - Two main types of neo- (structural) realism: o Offensive realism (seek to maximize relative power; drive to dominate)  Relevant power  Depth between states  You’re not strong unless the other is weak o Defensive realism (seek to maximize security; drive to balance)  Good enough security  Room for coordination Slide 4: Core ideas in Liberal IR: Current dominant strands - Democratic peace liberalism o Democracies don’t go to war with other democracies o The more democratic countries the less war, democratic countries don’t go to war with each other o Flaws: how we define democracy, how do we define war Slide 5: Neo-liberalism - Policy world: Identified with capitalism and Western democratic values and institutions - Free market economy - Academically: Most often refers to liberal institutionalism - Emphases: commerce, democracy o Also: Role of interdependence and institutions  Absolutely key to understanding international relations o Emerged in 70s - Key developments: o Functional integration theory (1950s-60s)  Europe wanted to avoid another war o Complex interdependence literature (1970s-80s)  Green peace  Issues of commerce, explosion of trade  Happen at all different levels  Military might work in certain circumstances Slide 6: Neo-liberal institutionalism: Key assumptions - States are key actors, but not the only actors - States are rational utility maximizers - States cooperate to achieve absolute gains o Multilateralism can be in the national interest o Opens the door to cooperation - Greatest obstacle to cooperation: cheating o Due to anarchy/human nature Slide 7: Neo-liberal institutionalism: Key assumptions - Regimes and institutions help govern a competitive and anarchic international system o Goal: Reduce cheating (via institutional rules) - Institutional benefits: o Increase information and transparency o Reduce transaction costs – sovereignty o Can become catalysts for cooperation - If institutions are seen to deliver benefits, they will garner support o Stick around longer if their original use is gone o World Bank o Assumes a mutual interest Slide 8: The two neos and globalization - Globalization challenges state power o Neo-realists: states are still principal actors  Concern is new security issues from uneven globalization o Not all votes are equal o Neo-liberals: most believe globalization is positive force  All states benefit from economic growth  Some believe states should promote institutions to manage consequences of globalization to create positive consequences Slide 9: Neo-conservatism - A “quasi-theory” o Not a full fledged theory o Neo-conservatism in
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