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Public Administration.doc

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Brock University
Political Science

Public Administration 2011-01-12 What is the public sector?  Public vs. private sector: management techniques influence public administration  Purpose of public administration is supposed to be good for public  What is the measure of “good” public administration? Public monopoly on coercion  Is public administration accountable?  Human resources management public servants generally have tenure and other fights as public servants  Cabinet secrets vs. public knowledge: what the public sees vs. what other bureaucrats see is difficult but “at the top” there can be a lot of public security Trade-offs between democracy and administration efficiency  Power dispersed vs. concentrated  Suspicion of executive power vs. enhancing it  Power to politicians, interest groups and citizen’s vs. power to experts and professional bureaucrats  Political bargaining and accommodation vs. desire to “keep politics separate” The size of public sector and its changing environment  In Canada, significant growth in administrative capacity during WWI and WWII  Major growth of governments at federal and provincial levels, 1994-1980  Efforts to control spending and reduce the size of government in the 1980’s- today  More recently, increased spending on security Further issues and themes  What are the real powers of public bureaucracy in Canada?  Is the public bureaucracy the “right” size or responsibilities that it carries out  Whither the “Westminster Model” 2011-01-14 The origins of public administration  Certain social and economic preconditions  Development of a money economy is a presupposition for bureaucracy, because bureaucrats are compensated with money  According to Weber, professional, paid bureaucracies developed in ancient Egypt; the later Roman Empire; Roman Catholic Church; China; 19 century Europe; 19 – 20 th th century corporations  Ancient Athens earliest democratic governance The collection of taxes  Development of an autonomous capacity to collect taxes also a major feature of early public administration  Some countries, such as the United Kingdom were relatively late to develop this capacity, relying instead on a feudal model with delegated authority to non bureaucrats  Capacity improved as British Empire developed: Empire could not have been managed without relatively sophisticated public bureaucracy Diversity of administrative tasks  In ancient Egypt, evidence that professional bureaucrats were involved in the public regulation of waterways for navigation, agriculture and drinking water th  By 19 century, new technologies bringing in new administrative requirements: public lands for settlement and development; waterways including canals; railroads; the telegraph  New technologies required professional, increasingly public and collective regulation, led to an increase in State’s administrative capacity; The concentration of the means of administration  Karl Marx vs. Max Weber: Weber felt that Marx got it all wrong, that the real problem with capitalism was not the concentration of the means of production but the concentration of the means of administration in bureaucracy  More a European or continental debate, because Weber not translated and published in English until after WWII The study of public administration: the classical approach  The “classical” approach begins with Woodrow Wilson’s 1887 article that set out the politics administration dichotomy;  Wilson defined the scope of the study of public administration  Scientific Management movement, centered mainly in the U.S.  The (re)discovery of Weber after WWII also influenced the “classical” approach The behaviouralist approach  Some overlap with the “classical” approach, especially regarding the study of “classical” bureaucratic models;  Part of wider movement in the social science, emergence of political science;  Dominant in political science before the rise of more “rational-choice” approaches;  Today the behaviouralists’ study of “actual behaviour” competes with “rational choice” emphasis on methodologies from economics The state of the art in Canada  Development of academic journals, e.g. Canadian Public Administration, Canadian Journal of Political Science;  Development of “in-house” training capacities, e.g. Management Development Centre  Development of academic programs  Crosses boundaries of law, political science and public policy 2011-01-17 Max Weber and the “Ideal Type of Bureaucracy”  Weber’s Ideal Type (IT) was NOT intended to be a description of reality;  Was NOT intended to be a hypothesis; and  Was NOT intended to be a normative “ideal model” of bureaucracy  Weber wrote that his IT “has nothing to with any type of perfection other than a purely logical one + Seven main characteristic of Weber’s “Ideal Type” (Barker, pp 18-19)  (1) Hierarchy: unified command structure, administration is carried out on a continuous basis, not simple at pleasure of leader;  (2) Specialization of Labour: tasks within the organization divided into functionally distinct areas each with requisite authority and sanctions  (3) Employment and Promotion based on merit: - Officials appointed on the basis of a contract - Officials appointed, not elected: according to Weber, election modifies the strictness of hierarchical subordination - Appointment on the basis of professional qualifications - Career structure exists with promotion based on merit and may also be based on seniority  (4) Full-time employment - Officials have fixed monetary salary and pension rights - The official’s position is his or her sole or major occupation - Full-time employment facilitates control over the official within the hierarchy  (5) Decisions made on the basis of impersonal rules: - Not simply the existence of these rules but the quality and mode of application of those rules that distinguishes bureaucratic organization - The official is subject to a unified control and disciplinary system in which the means of compulsion and its exercise are clearly defined  (6) Importance of Written Files: - Administration is based on written documents; - Memos; databases; “institutional memory”  (7) Bureaucratic employment separate from bureaucrat’s private life: - The officeholder cannot appropriate the office (i.e. it cannot be sold or passed on by heredity). Weber’s three types of legitimate domination (Barker, p. 18)  Weber saw three types of authority used to dominate societies  The sources of legitimacy differ;  Again, “pure types,” “ideal types” not meant as norms; the bases of legitimacy usually occur in mixtures  Weber says that domination is exercised through administration, and that legal domination requires  (1) Legal (or rational) domination, (2) traditional domination and (3) charismatic domination  Six dimensions where the three types differ:  Dimension 1: The head of the system: The official (civil servant or elected official) vs. Monarch or religious dignitary vs. Prophet, warlord, demagogue, and charismatic leader  Dimension 2: Source of the authority: delegation based on laws or rules vs. tradition or heredity vs. devotion, emotional attachment  Dimension 3: Form of legitimacy: belief in formal correctness or rules vs. belief in the traditional; order vs. belief in the extraordinary qualities of the leader  Dimension 4: Type of administrative staff: Bureaucracy vs. “Servants of the Master” vs. leader’s entourage.  Dimension 5: Type of legal system: Instrumentally rational formal law vs. traditions in the local jurisdiction vs. the leader imposes the law at will  Dimension 6: Predominant type of social conduct: Instrumentally rational vs. traditional vs. value-rational 2011-01-19 Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management (Barker pp. 21-23)  Taylor argues there are two kinds of workers: first class and second class  It is management’s responsibility to identify and promote “first class” workers;+  For principles of “scientific management”: (1) The development of a science of management;  (2) The selection and training of workers;  (3) Bringing science and workers together;  (4) An equal division of work and responsibility between worker and management Taylor  “Taylorism” part of a wider social and political movement;  Found common cause with “Progressives” who wanted to reform government, eliminate corruption and legislate for the common good;  Scientific Management a way to make workers more fulfilled; higher wages;  “Taylorism” spreading through business, government and (through the Progressive movement in the U.S.) politics;  Applied in public administration first at the municipal level, in New York and Chicago;  The Principles of Scientific Management translated into Dutch, Russian, Italian, Spanish, Japanese, Chinese, etc.  Time-and-motion studied to identify the best workers;  Workplace to be organized t maximize efficiency; and  Financial incentives for the best workers to continue to perform well and be productive; Taylorism in Canada  Civil Service Commision (1908);  U.S. consultant hired: Arthur Young and Co. (influenced by Taylor’s methods and Taylorism as a movement);  Main task: describe and classify 50 000 positions;  Helped strengthen the “Whitehall model” in Canada  What is the “Whitehall model”? Three main elements”  (1) Monopoly of civil service advice to ministry;  (2) Centralized machinery of government;  (3) Professional “ethic”; “the profession”; Gulick and Urwick and the Scientific Theory of Organization (Barker pp. 24-25)  Span of control: narrow vs. wide;  “The number of subordinates who report to one supervisor”  How to get rid of “red tape”, remove layers of bureaucracy, without adversely affecting quality of service?  Routine procedures can have broader span of control; more complicated procedure require narrower span;  Other factors training and education; geographic dispersion of the work; nature of organization  (25-27) Organization of duties: Four different ways to characterize the type of work within an organization:  (1) What is the purpose of the work?  (2) What process does the worker use?  (3) What other persons does the worker need to deal with? And  (4) Where is the work to be done?  (27-28) Staff and line functions:  Line authority: function is authority: “the Boss”  Staff Advisory Relationship: function: advice and support, “know-how”; technical assistance. 2011-01-21 Herbert Simon: A new science of administration  Criticized ideas of Gulick and Urwick  Simon said that carried to their logical extreme, they do not help the decision-maker to decide;  Gulick and Urwick’s people, purpose, process and place analysis limited as a management tool  Gulick and Urwick’s approach, according to Simon, does not help administrators decide where to place public services, how to organize bureaucracy etc Herbert Simon: Critical of application of theories of specialization, span of control, unity of command, PPP  If reducing organization levels is supposed to increase administrative efficient and if reducing the number of subordinates is supposed to do the same, how is the public administrator supposed to choose?  District of function?  What if person up the chain of command does not have the requisite knowledge?  What if purpose and clientele are in conflict? (Choosing between health and educations) The consequences of Simon’s criticisms of administrative theory  After Simon, some of the weakness of Scientific Organization reduced the pertinence that approach, although arguably still useful as an organization tool  Consequences for Wilson’s politics-administration dichotomy: after Simon, the dichotomy was no longer seen as promoting a “value-free” domain for decision-making for public administration  Simon stresses the importance of a distinction between values (the sources of the policy, which should legislative) and facts (the basis of efficiency and what administration should deal with);  “Administrative theory must be interested in the factors that will determine with what skills, values, and knowledge the organization member undertakes Simon and “bounded rationality”  Emphasis on individual decision-making, rather than on the organization  Hence the decision maker needs to “satisfy” his superiors – provide information when it is requested, rather than having more time – in a way that will “suffice” or “be good enough” in the circumstances 2011-01-24 Mary Parker Follett (Barker p. 34)  Lived in 1868 – 1933  Impact more in 40’s, became associated with Urwick and through Urwick, with the scientific theory of organization  Re-examined in 1980’s, 1990’s as feminist pioneer, ideas “repackaged” as stakeholder theory  Separate from Taylor; Gulick and Urwick: Follett more psychological dimension of administration Mary Parker Follett: Compromise and integration  Over shadowed by Mayo, the Hawthorne experiments, and other more data oriented approaches Overshadowed by Gulick and Urwick  Follett’s theories focus on conflict and resolution  Conflict continual, creates opportunities for compromise The Hawthorne experiments aka The Western Electric experiments  Carried out at Western Electric  Hawthorne plant, near Chicago, 1927 -32;  Gave rise to expression “Hawthorne effect” or the sympathetic observer effect’  Elton Mayo involved;  Part of wider institutional changes in the study and practice of public administration  Experiments on employee lighting: three departments exposed to different lighting  Subjects were aware of the experiments  Other experiments to measure of rests or pauses of the work day: focus on the repetitive task of assembling telephone relays;  Subjects moved from one room to another: work conditions changed: more time for talk between workers;  Some data less useful because of the factors of the experiment were controlled  Also interviews, experiments with telephone bank wiring Maslow’s hierarchy and organizational humanism (pp 36-37) Physiological; Safety Belongingness and love;  Esteem;  Self-actualization; 2011-01-26 Chester Barnard and Cooperation (Barker pp. 35 – 36)  People not simple motivated to maximize wages and self interest, contrary to Taylor’s theory  Human motivation not always rational, selfish, maximizing economic man;  Organizations composed of people who had many roles and goals: inevitable there is conflict between roles;  Inevitable conflicts between roles requires leadership “function” to promote cooperation  Barnard maintained that human beings have a mix of motivations;  If organizations are to be efficient and effective (1) cooperation, (2) common purpose and (3) communication are the primary requirements not Taylorist control; The underlying assumptions of cooperation  Humans physically limited, socially purposeful, and possess free will;  The existence of purpose and experience of limitations leads to cooperation;  When cooperation beings, the strategic factor to over is social in nature;  Cooperation must be effective in purpose and efficient in satisfying social motives;  Cooperation in organizations starts informally but becomes deliberate, conscious, and purposeful;  These create the dynamics of organizational behaviour require contributions from and inducements to members Barnard on the functions of the executive  Being an executive does not necessarily mean the same as being a leader: being an executive rests on a position, leadership is based on function;  Barnard defines leadership as “the power of individuals to inspire cooperative personal decisions by creating faith.”  Barnard lists five qualities of organizational leaders: (1) vitality and endurance; (2) decisiveness; (3) persuasiveness; (4) responsibility; and (5) intellectual capacity; Maslow’s hierarchy and organizational humanism (pp. 36-37)  Physiological;  Safety  Belongingness and love;  Esteem;  Self-actualization;  In sum, workers have a variety of needs, not just salaries;  How to promote self-esteem? “Self actualization?” Difficult to define, put in practice. Douglas McGregor’s dualistic approach: Theory X, Theory Y  McGregor developed two frameworks to understand how managers see people in organizations;  X Theory assumes that people don’t really want to work, need to be coerced and controlled, and don’t want responsibility  Y Theory assumes that people want to work, are interested in what they do and want responsibility, and are committed to the goals of the organization Organizational Humanism (Summary, Barker p. 37, Box 3.1)  Respect for workers as complex human beings with diverse sets of needs  Distrust of simple, one dimensional theories of motivation;  Recognition that the informal organization can be as instrumental as the formal one in setting work rules Criticisms  OH is a form of manipulation: management manipulates workers into sharing its goals and behaving in its interests  OH can give the impression of providing feedback and “listening” when the exercise in fact has no impact on management;  How “happy” should employees really be? 2011-01-28 Participatory Management Organization Development (OD)  OD also part of the wider “evaluation” approach to public administration  In the context of human resources management approaches such as OD are based on the evaluation of people, as opposed to the evaluation of programmes or policy;  OD approaches can involve performance-based pay schemes, personnel assessment and appraisal, and organizational development strategies  Figure 3.2 (Barker p 40)  As learning approach OD employs a variety of strategies to develop commitment, self- direction and self control in the people variables;  Can be expressed through a variety of actions, such as: - (a) decentralization of decision making - (b) cooperation rather than competition - (c) bringing conflicts into the open - (d) making - (e) increasing communication between individuals, groups and departments - (f) improving and developing people’s capacities; and - (g) changing structures that impede performance Total Quality Management  Pioneered by W. Edwards Demming;  Demming was a U.S. statistician who is credited with laying the foundations of Japanese industrial success after 1945 and up to the 1980’s  “Quality Circles”;  In the 1980’s, the ideas of TQM became fashionable and found its way into the new public sector agenda; Criticisms of OD and TQM (Barker p41)  More difficult to apply to a large hierarchy organization  some problems similar to criticisms of organizational humanist approach; assumes that management really listens, cares and is willing to invest the resources needed to make Participatory Management work;  OD merely addressing symptoms of a dysfunctional, tense or difficult environment? What if the problem is really with “The Boss”? With employee’s personal life?  Barker, p 41: “In a true hierarchical setting, those at the pinnacle… have authority over those at lower levels. Some things have not changed since Weber. Given this fact is real participation possible?” Canada and Participatory Management  “PS2000” and the reinvention of the public service  Overtaken by Program Review, announced in Paul martin’s 1995 budget  Program Review, more PS2000 have shaped today’s public service in Canada  Attempt to renew public service Some other approaches  Open systems approach (pp. 43-44)  Contingency Theory: argues that what is important in understanding organizational change is the way in which organizations change in order to meet the demands of different environment and technologies  Contingency theory suggests that there is “No one best way to organize”: how does this apply to public administration? To the delivery of public services? To the provision of policy advice to minsters  How do these approaches help us understand public administration?  Theories of motivation (pp. 45-47)  The “garbage can” approach (1984): various problems and solutions “dumped in”, stirred around in a “soup”, out comes various policy agendas  How do these help us to deliver public services? To provide policy advice? 2011-01-31 Constitutional conventions: The Governor General and Lieutenant Governors  Early constitutional history: first legislature in what is now Ontario elected in 1792;  Not “responsible government” until 1849;  “Responsible government” means that the executive is required to have support of a majority of the elected members;  Early years of colonial government: Governors and Lieutenant Governors played role in setting legislative agenda; The development of constitutional conventions of Canada  Governor General created in 1867;  GG and Lieutenant Governors exercise sovereign legislative authority under the Constitution Act 1867;  Federal and provincial are sovereign within their respective spheres of legislative authority  Municipalities are (creatures) of the provincial legislatures and provinces are responsible for their organization: limited revenue-raising power  Constitutional conventions are rules that define major non-legal rights, powers and obligations of office holders of the Crown, or the relations between Crown entities;  Early constitutional development: civil service, government departments still organized largely around patronage lines in 19 century  Civil Service Act 1908  Still developing conventions today (e.g. prorogation), esp. in minority governments  Departments part of those conventions; The convention of ministerial responsibility  Collective ministerial responsibility (also known as cabinet responsibility) requires that ministers as members of cabinet are responsible for the actions of the government as a whole  If the executive loses the confidence of Parliament or an Assembly, it resigns;  Individual ministerial responsibility has two dimensions: personal and professional  Public service anonymity is part of the convention: everything is done in the name of the Minister or in the name of the government The convention of civil service anonymity  Political neutrality of civil servants is part of what makes ministerial responsibility work;  Convention very similar to Weber’s (Ideal Type) of bureaucracy: political and administration separate to the extent possible; civil servants promotes on basis of merit; stay out of partisan politics; keep views private while (speaking truth to power): loyalty to the regime of the day regardless of personal views  Part of Westminster model or (in Canada) the East Block conventions Some highlights in the evolution of the East Block conventions  Durham Report, 1840;  House of Commons Select Committee (1877): As a general principle appointment, promotions and the whole management of the service should have separated as far as possible from political consideration  Influence of Wilsons 1887 political administration dichotomy in Canada;  By 1920`s, 1930`s started to develop a cadre of mandarins in Canada How the convention works in practice  Protects authority and accountability of ministers;  However, it may be unreasonable to hold a minister personally responsible for the error of the administrative subordinates  Ministers normally resign for personal or gross professional misconduct  Public servants can appear before committees of Parliament, but only for administrative matters, not policy or politically controversial issues The legislature, executive and government departments  GG vs. GG in Council  Lieutenant Governor vs. LG in Council  Operating or Line departments vs. central agencies (Barker, Table 5.1, p. 72)  The organization (and reorganization) of government departments: The Campbell administration, June 1993 (Barker p. 73);  Transport Canada organization chart (p. 77) Where are the airports? 2011-02-04 The legislature, executive and judicial dimensions of the Crown  GG vs. G
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