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Lecture 9

POLI 1P95 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Eh Bildu, Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport, Basque Conflict

Political Science
Course Code
Sanjay Jeram

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Feb 4th: Basque continued
Post transition to democracy:
violence increased
from armed group to social movement
Basque Movement of National Liberation
Society: Socialist Patriotic Coordinator Committee (KAS)
Politics: Batasuna
Military strategy: ETA
Moderate Basque Nationalism: PNV
patriotic pendulum: sovereignty or independence?
Relationship to ETA
Post-1996: Resurgent Spanish nationalism
2004: “Sovereignty association”, referendum which called for sovereignty
Seeking a new political status, want a referendum to have a relationship with the EU,
and to have it legally binding for the Basque people to be able to make their own
decisions in the future.
Shifting Alliances in the Basque Conflict:
The Ajurea Ena Pact (1998)
THe Lizarra Pact (1998), nationalism and violence has become intertwined with the
international community and the Basque community. Longest ceasefire after this pact.
Spanish gov’t agreed to dialogue with ETA because of this (2005)
this recognition is very important, because it means that the Spanish gov’t no
longer saw them as a terrorist group
ETA believed PNV’s goals were to modest- the Madrid -Barajas airport bombing (2006)
Public and political opinion against ETA hardens
Fiftieth anniversary bombing (2009)
the amount of people who have rejected has increased since 1981
Leaving Violence Behind:
Gov’t crack down on KAS
‘everything is ETA
International dimension:
disagree with Spanish gov’t on the crackdown of ETA
KAS distances itself from ETA- an issue for ETA, who needs their support,
economically and socially
Cessation of armed activity (October, 21, 2011)
Has anything changed?
Euskal Herria Bildu (EH Bildu), parties run in elections together as a grouped party. New
reformed nationalist movement. Many ETA members were suspected to be part of the
2012 Basque elections
“radical” nationalism did not die with ETA
PNV received 26% of votes
‘Peace and Coexistence Plan’ (2013)
there was violence by the state in the 80’s, and this was not sufficiently
addressed by the gov’t according to ETA.
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