POLI 1P95 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Eh Bildu, Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport, Basque Conflict
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Feb 4th: Basque continued
Post transition to democracy:
● violence increased
● from armed group to social movement
● Basque Movement of National Liberation
○ Society: Socialist Patriotic Coordinator Committee (KAS)
● Politics: Batasuna
● Military strategy: ETA
Moderate Basque Nationalism: PNV
● patriotic pendulum: sovereignty or independence?
● Relationship to ETA
● Post-1996: Resurgent Spanish nationalism
● 2004: “Sovereignty association”, referendum which called for sovereignty
● Seeking a new political status, want a referendum to have a relationship with the EU,
and to have it legally binding for the Basque people to be able to make their own
decisions in the future.
Shifting Alliances in the Basque Conflict:
● The Ajurea Ena Pact (1998)
● THe Lizarra Pact (1998), nationalism and violence has become intertwined with the
international community and the Basque community. Longest ceasefire after this pact.
Spanish gov’t agreed to dialogue with ETA because of this (2005)
○ this recognition is very important, because it means that the Spanish gov’t no
longer saw them as a terrorist group
● ETA believed PNV’s goals were to modest- the Madrid -Barajas airport bombing (2006)
○ Public and political opinion against ETA hardens
● Fiftieth anniversary bombing (2009)
● the amount of people who have rejected has increased since 1981
Leaving Violence Behind:
● Gov’t crack down on KAS
○ ‘everything is ETA’
● International dimension:
○ disagree with Spanish gov’t on the crackdown of ETA
○ KAS distances itself from ETA- an issue for ETA, who needs their support,
economically and socially
● Cessation of armed activity (October, 21, 2011)
Has anything changed?
● Euskal Herria Bildu (EH Bildu), parties run in elections together as a grouped party. New
reformed nationalist movement. Many ETA members were suspected to be part of the
● 2012 Basque elections
○ “radical” nationalism did not die with ETA
○ PNV received 26% of votes
● ‘Peace and Coexistence Plan’ (2013)
○ there was violence by the state in the 80’s, and this was not sufficiently
addressed by the gov’t according to ETA.
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