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Lecture 3

POLI 1P95 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Free Aceh Movement, Asian South Africans, Acehnese Language


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLI 1P95
Professor
Sanjay Jeram
Lecture
3

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Typology of Ethnic Groups
Ethnonationalist:
The Kurds- race
desire for self governance
often have features of the groups below
Indigenous Peoples:
claim to be on a lnd first
nation connotates the idea of the right to self government
Communal Contenders:
shared ethnicity but different because of their political goal of self governance (not all
aim for self governance, some may just work for participation in the gov’t)
recognition for ethnicity
Ethnoclasses:
an ethnic group wound up in a certain nation, and set into a certain class
example: Black Africans in South Africa during Apartheid
Dominant Minorities:
Example, Apartheid, Afrikaner was the dominant minority.
usually associated with colonialism (Belgium in Congo)
Ethnonationalist Example:
Aceh
did not gain independence until late 18th century
Aceh participated in the Indonesian Revolution against the Dutch. The Indonesian state
became much more secular than expected. The Acehnese did not want to be part of the
secular Indonesian state.
Islam and language in Aceh separated the nation from the rest of Indonesia
Acehnese language was revived in the fight for Acehnese INdependence
1959: “special region” status
Dictatorial State: Suharto’s New Order, (1966-98), removed the special region status.
Banned any Aceh ethnicity (language, flags, movements)
this made the Aceh nationalist movement even stronger
Free Aceh Movement (par-military, pursued rebellion) (GAM)
Violence has since then (1970’s) subsided
Communal Contender: Asian South Africans
different from black south africans, even though both groups were oppressed by
Afrikaners
Majority from India (gave them a shared history, ethnicity to fight for)
Apartheid: was not directly targeted at Asian South Africans. Asian South Africans were
classified differently- which gave them a sense of self, a common ethnic identity. A
Division between black and asian south africans
At the end of Apartheid there was cooperation between asian and black africans, but
also separate movements, the Indians were worried they would be treated as a minority
in a democratic South Africa, but especially fought for participation in the new democratic
gov’t.
Persistent Ethnic Identity
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