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popular culture oct. 2, 2012.docx

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Brock University
Popular Culture
Scott Henderson

October 2, 2012 Culture and civilization The emergence of popular culture debates Culture and civilization: th - Emerged in the middle of the 19 century - Particularly in the writing of Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) - Culture and anarchy (1869)  Never used the term ‘popular culture’  Instead defines “culture” against “anarchy”  “the whole scope of this essay is to recommend culture as the great help out of our present difficulties”  He defines cultures as “the best that has been thought and said in the world” Working class: - Arnold: “the strong feudal habits of subordination and deference” have been dissolved “the anarchical tendency of our worship of freedom” - William Hogarth “beer street and gin lane”  In support of the gin act and suggesting beer as a better alternative - Arnold refers to working class culture as “raw and uncultivated” - Calls them “those vast, miserable, unmanageable masses of sunken people” Arnold’s ‘divisions’: Upper class – barbarians (elite) Philistines – middle class (concerns with emerging middle class, needed to know their plac but needed to follow the elites model for society to function, education was key) Populace – working class (still the biggest one) Middle class: - Emergence tied to social and cultural changes of 19 centuryh - Rise in mechanization - Rise in leisure industries and entrepreneurship - Increase in education - Not tied to physicality and manual labour of working class Where does popular culture fit in?: - In Arnolds case its culture that emerges from the people is one definition at the time - Increasingly tied up with what is bought and sold- the increased emergence of consumer goods - Those aimed at emerging working class may attract middle class away from true culture (hence our use of the ‘philistine’ for someone who may be perceived as uncultured) Rebellion: - Arnold is concerned with emerging political power and protests of the working class - He is concerned with the rising suffragette movement women wanting to vote - Arnold refers to protests in his writing as ‘bawling’ - Worried that those without proper ‘culture’ could come to dominate based on numbers Regulation of pastime: - Longer running concerns with pastimes of the lower class - Outlines in out textbooks on reference to studies by Robert Malcomson  Attempts to regulate or ban activities that were seen as brutal or less civilized Pastimes: - Often tied to manual nature of jobs and lives - Include blood sports, fairs and carnivals, sports (such as football/soccer) - Seen as corrupting morals particularly in relation to displays of violence and cruelty, or sexual behaviours Regulation: th - Sports in the 19 century saw an increase in formalizing and regulating - Often brought about by the elite as ‘pastimes’ because more organized Football (soccer) in Britain: - From free for all, violent sport - Gradual development of set of rules - Also a formation of formal ‘clubs’ - In 1862 rules were adopted at Cambridge university - In 1863 Football Association is formed to officially create rules and to organize competitions - Those who are in charge are drawn from elite class - Thomas Arnold, father of Matthew, is headmaster at elite school Rugby – establishes different rules for game (now called Rugby) Hockey in Canada: - Informal, often seen as a violet pastime (often played by soldiers) - Codification of rules, games work toward controlling the violence - Used to be fli
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