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Lecture 5

lecture 5.doc

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John Mitterer

1 Feb 9 & 10, 2012 Week 5: Children and youth as producers and consumers Outline I/ Children and work II/ Young people and work in Canada III/ Commodification of childhood IV/ Children as consumers Main points -Idealized childhood is complicated by processes of production and consumption -There are diverse and culturally specific distinctions between what is considered acceptable and unacceptable work for children -Childhood itself is commodified I/ Children and work What are some examples of work that young people do that you feel okay about? What are some examples that you feel uncomfortable with? A) Childhood outside market relations - review •Public/private spheres •Innocent childhood •Other discourses of childhood B)‘Acceptable’ child work? -early job to gain the experience - working can be part of growing •As training... -Link to rite of passage -Link to becoming: When is work educational and when is it exploitative? •As vital contribution... – vital in single income households -Domestic labour -Labour within families - farming is vital in domestic labour -Paid work -Child as being? C) Exploitation? •Link to innocence, protection and becoming Mining – must be 18 or older to work underground 1. Legislated provincially -14 is general 2 •By age - 12 is BC/Alberta (under 12 in BC with permission) - different ages accepted - 16 is Manitoba unless permitted •Education - need to ensure that you are getting education •Conditions •Protection of development •Agriculture 2) Within UN CRC Article 32.1 States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. Article 28: Right to education (a) Make primary education compulsory and available free to all; (b) Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education… [and] make them available and accessible to every child. 3) “Worst case” labour •E.g. hazardous work - considered dangerous - mining/agricultural/factory work/shrimp farming •E.g. soldiering - considered cheap & obedient & expendable Article 38.2 States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities. Article 38.3 States Parties shall refrain from recruiting any person who has not attained the age of fifteen years into their armed forces... •E.g. prostitution - a long way alone by Ishmal Bhea - forced in soldiering/prostitution - underground and very hidden - Article 34: States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent: (a) The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity; (b) The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices; (c) The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials. Challenging to address worst case labour - age can be hard to determine - not always prioritized - some form worse than others 3 D) In summary • Not always clear-cut - depends on age - kind of work - where it is happening • Some valuable aspects of work - children should be treated differently at work • Defi
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