Lecture 8: Racialization and education -> Outlines -Schooling, Defining race, culture and ethnicity, Making race,
culture and ethnicity, Discrimination and education, A different kind of classroom?
Schools play a role in both challenging and creating inequality
Culture, ethnicity and race are distinct and shifting terms
Young people’s lives are shaped by culture, ethnicity and race, sometimes with difficult consequences,
including dealing with inequality and racism in schools
Various movements challenge the school’s reproduction of inequalities
A) Schools and equality
Skill development and credentials
B) Socialization and society
Reproducing culture - singing the national anthem, reproduction of Canadian culture
Hidden curriculum - tend to be to the dominant values of society
Dominant norms - culture that they teach (WASP)
C) Schools and inequality
1. Social reproduction theory: Bowles and Gintis (1976) Schooling in Capitalist America - a classic!
Grooming students for certain kinds of work - Streaming
o E.g. 1: Barman, Jean “Schooled for Inequality: The Education of British Columbia Aboriginal Children”
from Histories of Canadian Children and Youth
o Residential schools - Assimilate them, BUT they were being streamed into the working class
o E.g. 2: military recruiting in US inner city schools
o Military centre in High schools. - More likely to show up in a lower academic schools and one that has
a high population of non-white people.
Sorting procedures - Remedial classes and lower academic classes - most underfunded, no resources, teachers
are paid less
o E.g. 1: Jenny Oakes (1985) Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality
o E.g. 2: Angela Valenzuela. (2009) “Subtractive schooling, caring relations, and social capital in the
schooling of U.S.-Mexican youth”. In The Curriculum Studies Reader, eds D. J. Flinders and S. J.
Thornton. They tell that the working Mexican class to not come on the days where there are
standardized testing because they will bring down the average of the school and less funding
2. Unequal resources (in Schissel)
- Exacerbated by inequality and underfunding
3. Rewarding of cultural capital - the idea of certain class of class backgrounds have certain cultures that come
with their class backgrounds
- Review cultural capital
- School’s values are whose values?
- For some an easier fit
- For some a harder fit
II/ Defining race, culture and ethnicity
Culture: The "set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group…
it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and
beliefs" (UNESCO 2002)
Ethnicity: More specifically defining a group of people based on shared cultural features that are often linked with
language, traditions, religion, history and nationality.
Race: Defining a group of people based on physical characteristics that are deemed to be social significant. Racialization: the production of racial identities
Racism: Believing that one racial group is superior to others, that physical appearance indicates other essential
characteristics; social constructionist
III/ Making culture, race