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Biopsychology: Studying the Brain (Methods) and Neurons and Synapses

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John Mitterer

BIOPSYCHOLOGY Methods of Studying the Brain Localization of Function y Anatomists have long known that the brain is a complex structure composed of many anatomically distinct parts y However are difference parts of the brain involved in controlling different behaviouralpsychological functions Case Study Method y Stroke o Brain damage specific areas of the brain causes different side effects of a stroke y Phineas Gage 1848 o Dynamite foreman used a cloth to push dynamite down and 3 ft metal bar blew through Gages head but did not come out hospital sawed bar off Gage survived but had severe brain damagedamaged frontal cortexexecutive thinking selfcontrol thinking loose capacity to control emotions was unable to work bad case because it was too must damage Google nail skully Paul Broca 1861 o Dr reported that 2 patients came to him had strokes and they could not speak He was given permission to autopsy their brain when they died Had a lesion on the Brocas area left side below motor area Patient understands but not able to speak Productive Aphasia Primary Auditory area is NOT damagedy WernickeGeschwind Model o His patients also could not speak does not understand nor able to speak properly They would say the wrong word Primary Auditory area IS NOT damaged but is cannot be translated and said back through Wernickes area so random words may be saidy Flourens 17941867 o Topographical mapping o Contralateral control left side of brain controls right side of body and vice versa o Proportional representation amount of tissue to sensory input are disproportionate to the bodyface sensory in brain are larger than buttocks andor armsSubcortical Lesions StereotaxMicroelectrodes Stereotaxlocking skull of animal in place with rods in mouth on top of mouth and in both ears Microelectrodes y Thin pair of copper wires surrounded by a substance glass y thinner than human hair y These are used to lower a microelectrode in the brain y Tip of microelectrode can be placed anywhere in the brain and hooked up to electric stock What has been found Hypothalamic Hyperphagic o Ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus over eating due to damage caused to hypothalamus
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