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psychology Chapter 12.docx

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Ronald Cummings

Chapter 12: Personality The Psychology of Personality:  Personality: a person’s unique and relatively stable behaviour pattern, consistency in who you are, have been and will become  Character: person characteristics that have been judged or evaluated; a person’s desirable or undesirable qualities  Temperament: the hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, activity levels, prevailing mood, irritability, and adaption Personality Traits: a stable, enduring quality that a person shows in most situations  Influence our health, marital and occupational success  Personality states to stabilizes around age 3 and continues to harden through age 50 Do we Inherit Personality:  Behavioral Genetics: the study of inherited behavioral traits and tendencies  Hereditary has a sizeable affect on us 25-50 % of personality traits  Environment plays a bigger part Personality Type: people who have several traits in common  Introvert: a person whose attention is focused inward; a shy, reserves and self- centered person  Extrovert: a person whose attention is directed outward; bold and outgoing Self-Concept: a person’s perception of his or her own personality traits  Build self concepts out of out daily experiences  Affect our behaviour and personal adjustment Self-Esteem: regarding oneself as a worthwhile person; a positive evaluation of oneself  People who have low self-esteem suffer from poor self knowledge Personality Theories: a system of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles used to understand and explain personality 1. Trait Theories: attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behaviour 2. Psychodynamic Theories: focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles 3. Behavioristic and Social Learning Theories: place importance on the external environment and on the effects of conditioning and learning, social learning theories attribute differences in personality to socialization, expectations, and mental process 4. Humanistic Theories: stress private, subjective experience, and personal growth The Trait Approach:  Dominant method for studying personality  Introversion and extroversion can be thought of as a trait, this can allow you to predict how you will behave in a variety of settings  Trait Theorist: a psychologist interested in classifying, analyzing, and interrelating traits to understand personality Classifying Traits:  Common Traits: personality traits that are shared by most members of a particular culture  Individual Traits: personality traits that define person’s unique individual qualities  Cardinal Traits: a personality trait so basic that all of a persons activities relate to it (few people have cardinal traits)  Central Traits: the core traits that characterize an individual personality  Secondary Traits: traits that are inconsistent or relatively superficial person qualities  Source Traits: basic underlying traits or dimensions of personality; each source trait is reflected in a number of surface traits (core of one’s individual personality)  Surface Traits: the visible or observable traits of one’s personality  Factor Analysis: a statistical technique used to correlate multiple measurements and identify general underlying factors (looks at connections among traits) o If you have one trait you most likely automatically know other traits you have as well  There are 16 source traits, all are needed to fully describe personality Five-Factor Model: proposes that there are five universal dimensions of personality  Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientious, neuroticism and openness to experience  Any trait can be related to one of the 5 factors  Predicts how people will act in certain situations Traits, Consistency, and Situations:  Personality traits and external circumstances will affect how a person will act  Personality traits are consistent  Trait-situation Interaction: the influence that external settings or circumstances have on the expression of personality traits Psychoanalytic Theory:  Psychoanalytic Theory: Freudian theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious forces and conflicts  Actions based on hidden, or unconscious thoughts, needs and emotions Structure of Personality:  Three mental structure, id, ego and super ego  Id: made up of innate biological instincts and urges, it is self serving and demands pleasure o Operates on the pleasure principle which desires for immediate satisfaction o Libido underlies our efforts to survive as well as our sexual desires and pleasure seeking o Thanatos is the death instinct which produces aggressive and destructive urges  Ego: part of the personality that directs rational behaviour o Guided by the reality principle which delays action until it is appropriate o System of thinking, planning, problem solving and deciding  Superego: acts as a judge or sensor for the thoughts and actions of the ego o Ego Ideal: represents ideal behaviour; a source of pride when standards are met (reflects behaviours parents approved of or rewarded) The Dynamics of Personality:  Delicate balance of power between the id, ego and super ego, conflicting mental processes  Internal struggles and rechanneled energies typify most personality functioning  Impulses from the Id cause neurotic anxiety when the ego can barely keep it under control  Threats of punishment from the super ego cause moral anxiety  Our behaviour expresses unconscious forces  Can move memories from the preconscious to the conscious mind Personality Development:  Psychosexual Stage: stages when various personality traits are formed  Core of personality is formed before age 6  The four stages oral, anal, phallic and genital are a time where a different part of the body becomes the child’s primary erogenous zone, each area the serves as the main source of pleasure, frustration, and self-expression  Many adult personality traits can be traced to fixation (unresolved conflict) in one or more of the stages Oral Stage: the period when infants are preoccupied with the mouth as a source of pleasure and means of expression  Oral Dependent Personality: a person who wants to passively receive attention, gifts, love and so forth o Nail biting, gullible, passive and need lots of attention  Oral Aggressive: uses mouth to express hostility, and exploits others Anal Stage: takes place during the period of toilet training (1-3)  Anal-retentive: (holding on) a person who is obstinate, stingy, or compulsive, and who generally has a difficult of letting go  Anal-expulsive: (letting go) a disorderly, destructive, cruel or messy person The Phallic Stage: when a child is preoccupied with the genitals (3-6)  Phallic Personality: a person who is vain, exhibitionistic, sensitive and narcissistic  Increased sexual interest causes the child to be physically attracted to the parent of the opposite sex  Oedipus conflict: a boy’s sexual attraction to his mother, and feelings of rivalry with his father  Electra conflict: a girl’s sexual attraction to her father and feelings of rivalry with her mother Latency: a period in a childhood when psychosexual development is more or less interrupted (6 to puberty)  Not a stage but a quiet time during which psychosexual development is dormant The Genital Stage: period of full psychosexual development, marked by the attainment of mature adult sexuality Critical Comments:  First years of life shape adult personality  Overemphasized sexuality in personality development The Neo-Freudians: a theorist who has revised Freud’s theory, while still accepting some of its basic concepts  Alfred Alder: disagreed with Freud’s emphasis on the unconscious, intellectual drives and importance of sexuality o Striving for Superiority: according to Adler, this basic drive propels us toward perfection o Each person tried to compensate for different limitations and each chooses a different pathway to superiority o Core of each person’s style of life is formed by the age of 5 o Creative Self: the ‘artist’ in each of us that creates a unique identity and style of life, create their personalities through choices and experiences  Karen Horney: resisted his more mechanical, biological and instinctive ideas o Basic Anxiety: a primary form of anxiety that arises from living in a hos
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