Class Notes (838,240)
Canada (510,788)
Brock University (12,137)
Psychology (853)
PSYC 1F90 (129)
Lecture

psychology Chapter 12.docx

8 Pages
105 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1F90
Professor
Ronald Cummings
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 12: Personality The Psychology of Personality:  Personality: a person’s unique and relatively stable behaviour pattern, consistency in who you are, have been and will become  Character: person characteristics that have been judged or evaluated; a person’s desirable or undesirable qualities  Temperament: the hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, activity levels, prevailing mood, irritability, and adaption Personality Traits: a stable, enduring quality that a person shows in most situations  Influence our health, marital and occupational success  Personality states to stabilizes around age 3 and continues to harden through age 50 Do we Inherit Personality:  Behavioral Genetics: the study of inherited behavioral traits and tendencies  Hereditary has a sizeable affect on us 25-50 % of personality traits  Environment plays a bigger part Personality Type: people who have several traits in common  Introvert: a person whose attention is focused inward; a shy, reserves and self- centered person  Extrovert: a person whose attention is directed outward; bold and outgoing Self-Concept: a person’s perception of his or her own personality traits  Build self concepts out of out daily experiences  Affect our behaviour and personal adjustment Self-Esteem: regarding oneself as a worthwhile person; a positive evaluation of oneself  People who have low self-esteem suffer from poor self knowledge Personality Theories: a system of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles used to understand and explain personality 1. Trait Theories: attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behaviour 2. Psychodynamic Theories: focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles 3. Behavioristic and Social Learning Theories: place importance on the external environment and on the effects of conditioning and learning, social learning theories attribute differences in personality to socialization, expectations, and mental process 4. Humanistic Theories: stress private, subjective experience, and personal growth The Trait Approach:  Dominant method for studying personality  Introversion and extroversion can be thought of as a trait, this can allow you to predict how you will behave in a variety of settings  Trait Theorist: a psychologist interested in classifying, analyzing, and interrelating traits to understand personality Classifying Traits:  Common Traits: personality traits that are shared by most members of a particular culture  Individual Traits: personality traits that define person’s unique individual qualities  Cardinal Traits: a personality trait so basic that all of a persons activities relate to it (few people have cardinal traits)  Central Traits: the core traits that characterize an individual personality  Secondary Traits: traits that are inconsistent or relatively superficial person qualities  Source Traits: basic underlying traits or dimensions of personality; each source trait is reflected in a number of surface traits (core of one’s individual personality)  Surface Traits: the visible or observable traits of one’s personality  Factor Analysis: a statistical technique used to correlate multiple measurements and identify general underlying factors (looks at connections among traits) o If you have one trait you most likely automatically know other traits you have as well  There are 16 source traits, all are needed to fully describe personality Five-Factor Model: proposes that there are five universal dimensions of personality  Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientious, neuroticism and openness to experience  Any trait can be related to one of the 5 factors  Predicts how people will act in certain situations Traits, Consistency, and Situations:  Personality traits and external circumstances will affect how a person will act  Personality traits are consistent  Trait-situation Interaction: the influence that external settings or circumstances have on the expression of personality traits Psychoanalytic Theory:  Psychoanalytic Theory: Freudian theory of personality that emphasizes unconscious forces and conflicts  Actions based on hidden, or unconscious thoughts, needs and emotions Structure of Personality:  Three mental structure, id, ego and super ego  Id: made up of innate biological instincts and urges, it is self serving and demands pleasure o Operates on the pleasure principle which desires for immediate satisfaction o Libido underlies our efforts to survive as well as our sexual desires and pleasure seeking o Thanatos is the death instinct which produces aggressive and destructive urges  Ego: part of the personality that directs rational behaviour o Guided by the reality principle which delays action until it is appropriate o System of thinking, planning, problem solving and deciding  Superego: acts as a judge or sensor for the thoughts and actions of the ego o Ego Ideal: represents ideal behaviour; a source of pride when standards are met (reflects behaviours parents approved of or rewarded) The Dynamics of Personality:  Delicate balance of power between the id, ego and super ego, conflicting mental processes  Internal struggles and rechanneled energies typify most personality functioning  Impulses from the Id cause neurotic anxiety when the ego can barely keep it under control  Threats of punishment from the super ego cause moral anxiety  Our behaviour expresses unconscious forces  Can move memories from the preconscious to the conscious mind Personality Development:  Psychosexual Stage: stages when various personality traits are formed  Core of personality is formed before age 6  The four stages oral, anal, phallic and genital are a time where a different part of the body becomes the child’s primary erogenous zone, each area the serves as the main source of pleasure, frustration, and self-expression  Many adult personality traits can be traced to fixation (unresolved conflict) in one or more of the stages Oral Stage: the period when infants are preoccupied with the mouth as a source of pleasure and means of expression  Oral Dependent Personality: a person who wants to passively receive attention, gifts, love and so forth o Nail biting, gullible, passive and need lots of attention  Oral Aggressive: uses mouth to express hostility, and exploits others Anal Stage: takes place during the period of toilet training (1-3)  Anal-retentive: (holding on) a person who is obstinate, stingy, or compulsive, and who generally has a difficult of letting go  Anal-expulsive: (letting go) a disorderly, destructive, cruel or messy person The Phallic Stage: when a child is preoccupied with the genitals (3-6)  Phallic Personality: a person who is vain, exhibitionistic, sensitive and narcissistic  Increased sexual interest causes the child to be physically attracted to the parent of the opposite sex  Oedipus conflict: a boy’s sexual attraction to his mother, and feelings of rivalry with his father  Electra conflict: a girl’s sexual attraction to her father and feelings of rivalry with her mother Latency: a period in a childhood when psychosexual development is more or less interrupted (6 to puberty)  Not a stage but a quiet time during which psychosexual development is dormant The Genital Stage: period of full psychosexual development, marked by the attainment of mature adult sexuality Critical Comments:  First years of life shape adult personality  Overemphasized sexuality in personality development The Neo-Freudians: a theorist who has revised Freud’s theory, while still accepting some of its basic concepts  Alfred Alder: disagreed with Freud’s emphasis on the unconscious, intellectual drives and importance of sexuality o Striving for Superiority: according to Adler, this basic drive propels us toward perfection o Each person tried to compensate for different limitations and each chooses a different pathway to superiority o Core of each person’s style of life is formed by the age of 5 o Creative Self: the ‘artist’ in each of us that creates a unique identity and style of life, create their personalities through choices and experiences  Karen Horney: resisted his more mechanical, biological and instinctive ideas o Basic Anxiety: a primary form of anxiety that arises from living in a hos
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1F90

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit