PSYC 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Homeostasis

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PSYC 1F90: Introduction to Psychology
Lecture 6 – Emotions and Motives: The Powerhouse of Personality
Monday, February 22nd, 2016 – Monday, February 29th, 2016
Motivation
Definition (questions of motivation)
Direction
Initiation
Intensity
Duration
Needs vs. “Wants”
Needs are foundational
Something you need to survive, such as food, shelter, water, etc.
“Wants”
Something you want, such as a TV, free school, laptop, etc.
Needs in different forms:
Biological needs
If you do not have these, you will die!
Stimulus motives/needs
The need for exploration of different stimulations
If you do not have these you will not die, but you will not do well
Social motives
Some include:
Need for power
Need for achievement
Need for affiliation
The need to be connected to others
If you do not have these you will not die, but you will not do well!
Traditional Theories of Motivation
Instincts
Innate, inborn, fixed patterns of behaviour
Historically, thought of as relevant to humans behaviour
Needs, drives, and homeostasis
The notion that we want to be in a state of balance and calm
Need is seen as a deficiency
Example: a biological need is the need for nutrition
This need propels the drive
Our drive is the actions we will take to meet the need
Once this need is met, we return to homeostasis (balance)
Incentives
Things in the environment that “pull” us
Cognitive Theories of Motivation
Do not see us as passive recipients; we are instead seen as active
Importance of “agency”
We are active agents that set goals, make plans, and have expectations around those plans and
our achievements
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