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Michael Ashton

PSYC 2P25 – Personality and Individual Differences Sep. 10, 2012 How can personality be measured? What are the “basic” personality characteristics? How (and how much) does personality change across the life span? How do hormones and brain chemicals relate to personality? How much does heredity influence personality? What features of your childhood influence your personality in adulthood? Why did personality differences evolve? How does personality affect life outcomes (e.g. health, happiness, career, law, relationships, etc.)? What is “intelligence”, and does it matter in real life? Do your religions and political views depend on you personality? How does personality relate to sexuality? Studying Personality  Two approaches to study of personality o Idiographic approach: try to understand each individual’s complex, unique features  used in biographies, fiction, etc. -> can help to generate ideas  might give ideas of how the personality works  but, it’s inefficient -> would take too long to study many people in this way (hundreds or thousands of people would need to be studied for this method)  also, doesn’t give a way to test ideas about personality o Nomothetic approach: try to understand all people in terms of personality variables  By measuring many people, can see how variables are inter-related -> and can test ideas about personality in general (not just for one person) Basic Measurement Concepts  To test ideas about personality, we need to measure the personalities of many people, and then analyze and compare the measurements  If we measure people on a characteristic, we (obviously) want our measurements to show which people have higher and lower levels of the characteristic (e.g. musical ability)  We also want our measurements to show how big the differences are between people o E.g. difference between “10” and “15” should mean the same thing as between “25” and “30”  If our measurements give meaningful differences between people, then we have “interval scores” PSYC 2P25 – Personality and Individual Differences Sep. 10, 2012  With interval scores, we can calculate means, standard deviations, correlations, etc. o Note: personality measurements rarely have a “true” or “absolute” zero score, so we cannot compare scores in terms of ratios -> doesn’t make sense to say, e.g. that one person is “twice” as nice/smart/lazy/nervous, etc.  When we measure psychological characteristics, we find that many (but not all) of them have a continuous distribution (not categorical)  Usually, most people have levels closest to average, with few people at (each) extreme -> often fairly close to normal distribution The Correlation Coefficient (r)  To understand personality, we often want to find out how much a personality characteristic is related to some other variable o E.g. anoth
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