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Lecture

2P30- january 22.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2P30
Professor
Gordon Hodson
Semester
Winter

Description
`2P30 January 22 Assignment one reading articles on Sakai (resources folder) Social Cognition - Processes by which information about people is processed and stored o Topics: schematic processing, reconstructive memory, reasoning, problem-solving, counterfactual thinking, stereotyping, etc. Schemas Defined - Mental representations of objects or categories of objects o Schemas aid in the:  Categorization of events  Predictability of events  Influence our interpretation of events o Social theory of how the world works - Affects what information we notice, think about and remember - Sometimes the schemas we have misrepresent the world - Why we have them? o They fulfill certain functions Functions of Schemas 1. Continuity a. It is important to have continuity in our life, to relate new experiences to our past schemas b. If we didn’t have schemas for continuity, every event would be brand new information; it allows us to not have to process all information as new information 2. Reduce the amount of information a. It reduces the amount of information that we have to process (saves time and effort); efficient 3. Reduce ambiguity a. Reduces ambiguity when we encounter ambiguous information; provide meaning Types of Schemas 1. Types of People a. The self, dependent people, intelligent people, egalitarian people b. Often stereotypes i. Example: professors are eccentric; students like to party ii. Schemas about group members, men, women, children, etc. 2. Role/Relational Schemas a. “A social role is the set of norms and behaviours attached to a social position, so a role schema is the cognitive structure that organize one’s knowledge about those appreciate norms and behaviours” (Friske & Taylor, 1984) b. Provides information on rules, normal and expected behaviours relevant to:  social categories (age, sex, race)  occupations (physician, layer, professor, nurse)  relationship status (lover, brother, friend) Cohen (1961) Schema-Memory Recall o Participants watched video of woman performing behaviours (e.g., dinner with husband) o IV: told she was a waitress or of a librarian o Results:  Schema-consistent recall was found  People basically remember the information that was consistent with the schema (whether she was a waitress or a librarian)  E.g., if presented as a librarian, greater recall on glasses, classical music fan  E.g., if presented as a waitress, greater recall on beer drinker  Greater recall than schema-inconsistent information ? 3. Event Schemas a. Tell us how to act in a certain environment/context i. E.g., how to act at a dentist office; how to order food at a fast food place ii. Called a “script”; “predetermined stereotypes sequence of actions that defines a well-known situation” (Schank & Abelson, 1977) iii. Information about events, but also the order of events iv. If-then clauses  If there are cash registers at the front, then I order it at the counter Heuristics - Rules of thumb - Judgment shortcuts that allow us to process information (particularly about probabilities) quickly and easily - E.g., “consensus implies correctness”; “more arguments = better case put forward” - Problem: can lead to systematic biases and errors 1. Availability Heuristic a. The tendency to judge the likelihood of events in terms of the ease with which they are remembered or recalled i. The easier it comes to mind, the more likely you’ll think it’s true; this type of thinking often serves us well  E.g., More male or females politicians in Canada? Likely to answer “male” because you can think of more males than females ii. E.g., airplane vs. car crashes; violent vs. property crime iii. Tversky & Kahneman, 1973: availability heuristics can also serve us ill  Task: memorize list of names of famou
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