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PSYC 2P30 March 19.docx

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Gordon Hodson

PSYC 2P30 March 19 1. Social Facilitation Triplett (1898):  Noticed that cyclists were faster cycling with others than when alone  Problem - Sometimes presence of others helped performance, sometimes hindered performance  Original conceptualization - Tendency to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present Zajonc – AROUSAL:  Presence of others -> increased arousal -> facilitate or interfere (depends on situation) Drive Theory of Social Facilitation - When learning, we have correct and incorrect responses in repertoire - Arousal increases both responses o Hence, errors take longer to decline, learning is hampered - When performing (i.e. not learning), largely correct responses available o Hence, arousal helps performance Evaluation Apprehension - Question: is it merely the presence of others, or other factors (evaluation apprehension; self-presentation) - Seems reasonable.. but we find social facilitation in animals too - For simple tasks, the presence of others improves performance (found in insects and humans) - For difficult tasks, the presence of others decreased performance Distraction- Conflict Theory - Keeps ideas: “others cause arousal” o But, arousal from conflict between:  1. Paying attention to the task  2. Paying attention to the audience/co-actor o Arousal still leads to facilitation effects - Conflict when attention to others and attention to task are simultaneous (information overload); increased arousal -> social facilitation Social Facilitation: Current Understanding - Strengthening of dominant (i.e., prevalent, likely) responses owing to the presence of others - Question remains: what is the source of the arousal? o Basics: “others” cause arousal -> arousal -> dominant response - Occurs when worked on individual goals, where individuals can be evaluated/noticed o But.. what about when you're working on a common goal, where you’re not accountable for individual efforts (i.e., additive task) (Two) Social Loafing - Reduction in motivation and effort when working in a group, when compared to working as individuals or co-actors) o Co-actors: individual tasks in the presence of others - Latane et al. (1979) o Ps clapped and cheered (either alone, or with 2, 4 or 6 person groups) o Results:  The larger the group size, the less effort was put forth by an individual Social Loafing: Why? - Social Impact Theory o Diffusion of responsibility (increased group sizes makes individuals feel like responsible) - Collective Effort Model o No individual evaluation of performance leads to decreased motivation o Working alone:  Effort -> performance -> outcomes  Work hard -> produce a good paper -> get an A o Working with others in a group:  Effort ---> group performance ---> sharing rewards  Weaker connection between effort and performance Decreasing Social Loafing - Working in small groups o Less room to disguise your poor effort - Interesting/important tasks - Working with respected others (e.g., friends, teammates) - Perceived accountability - Expecting coworkers to perform poorly o You’re more likely to pick up the slack of others - If cultures emphasize group outcomes (e.g., Asia, women compared to men) o Early, 1993: western cultures display social loafing much more than eastern (e.g., Israel, Chine); eastern cultures should better performance in group settings rather than individual, minimal social loafing - To give others the opportunity to evaluate their own performance (relative to others) Social facilitation: - Presence of others -> individual efforts can be evaluated -> alertness, evaluation apprehension, distraction-conflict -> arousal -> enhanced performance OR impaired performance on complex tasks Social Loafing: - Presence of others -> individual efforts cannot be evaluated -> no evaluation apprehension -> relaxation -> impaired performance on simple tasks OR enhanced performance on complex tasks (three) Numerical Minority Influence - “minority influence” refers to minority opinions (i.e., concerns numerical minorities) not ethnic minorities - Sometimes, minorities (individuals and groups) can have substantial influence on majorities When Minorities are Influential: - Consistency - Avoid appearance of rigidity or dogmatic - Suitable social context - Single vs. double minority What Does Minority Influence Mean? - Moscovici et al (1969) o Follow majority = public compliance o Follow minority = genuine acceptance o Groups of 6 (2 were confederates; a part of the experiment) o Report colour of slides (all were actually blue) o 2 confederates reported consistently seeing green o Results:  8% of responses were “green” (32% said green at least once)  Control group: .25% “green” and that was same participant twice) o Then...  Part 2: individually sort colour disks (ranged from green to blue)  Those in experimental (vs. control) group were more
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