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Psyc2P30 notes Lec Oct11, 2011.rtf

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Gordon Hodson

2P30 Lect Oct 11, 2011 Where do attitudes come from? Classical conditioning of attitudes Classical conditioning, pairing stimuli, something without meaning, gains meaning. Eg. pairing something negative with cats, cats become negative. You don't teach the dog to salivate around the dinner bell. Because the dog salivates with meat powder, after putting the meat down repeatedly during the tone, the tone starts having a meaning. When negative events happen, we have a negative evaluation. If you go to your cousin's wedding, and your uncle vomits on you, you think gross, disgusting. Crandall et al. Students sitting at a computer terminal, researchers paired words to them, while these words were being displayed on screen, sad and happy faces would flash really quickly to the point where they weren't even aware of it. "what do you think about this group of people?" for those that were paired with happy faces, they rated them moe positively, and less positive with sad faces. Instrumental/Operant conditioning We act in a particular way and we get rewarded for it, this Increases the behaviour and strengthens the attitude. Eg. if i do something, and get rewarded for it, I'll do it more, and opposite for punishment. We reward the right attitudes in our children, friends, and family, this is how we shape people's attitudes. Related to the Law of Effect. We reward and punish each other's behaviours and attitudes. Eg. if someone tells a racist joke, and everyone scolds him at the dinner table. If someone tells a racist or sexist joke, and you go along with it, then your view of that group are influenced, possibly may see them more stereotypically. Modelling of Attitudes It doesn't have to happen to you, it can be modelled for you. You pick up what others get rewarded or punished for. If you were to watch someone get punished for something, then you are less likely to do it. We pick up our attitudes from other people. Social comparison We look to other people to form our own attitudes - Festinger(1954). Main et al. went to a science centre, and asked people about a fictious race. If you tell me that most people are okay with them, then I'll be okay with them, if you tell me other people find them to be negative then i'll find them to be a bit negative.When we're unsure we turn to other people as sources of information. If someone's going to the voting poll, and didn't know who to vote, could be influenced by the number of red or blue signs they see as they drive up. Genetic Factors Olson et al. Not that you have an abortion or anti-abortion gene, but you can inherit a pred
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