PSYC 3P35 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Masculinity, Femininity
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•Tendency to divide world into distinct and non-overlapping characteristics
•Men and women don’t differ in kind, but in degree of the attributes they
1. Conceptual mistake to assume men are opposite to women
2. Doesn’t allow people to have male traits if the subject is female and vice
1. Masculinity and femininity: separate, individual dimensions of each other (not
•Gender Segregation: when separated and allowed to interact with people of
the same sex, men and women behave differently. This is because they were
raised differently; they were segregated and played differently.
•Gender Socialization: different kinds of play. Children acquired and learnt
different kinds of attributes of which they carry on to adulthood.
•At age four ration of Same Sex : Cross Sex interaction is 3:1, at age 10 is 10:1
Masculinity & Femininity
•Two independent (statistically orthogonal) dimensions of individual
•e.g., dominant, forceful, competitive, individualistic
•e.g., affectionate, cheerful, tender, compassionate
•Same Sex Interaction is the place to see each of the gender’s main attributes
•No global differences in genders; genders are far less different than similar; if
any differences do exist, they are modest and highly situated.
Agentic and Communal Behaviour
•Same Sex Friendship: men display very dominant behaviour when with those
of the same sex; when women interact with women, they are more
communal than men (men and women don’t differ in agentic behaviour)
•Opposite Sex Friendship: behave differently
•Romantic Relationship: women are less communal than men with romantic