PSYC 3P35 Lecture Notes - Amplified Bible, Beck Depression Inventory, Sports Game

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Published on 4 Feb 2013
(Not responsible for post traumatic syndrome from last lecture slides)
Depression is one of the most profound human experience because it is fundamentally about loss
Depression involves wide range of symptoms, core features are persistent feelings of sadness, despair,
unpleasant mood, persistent inability to take routine or pleasurable activities
Two sides of face of depression, persistent of sadness and anti anehidonia (lack of pleasure or joy)
Disturbances of sleep, appetite, difficulty with concentration, fatigue
Why do we as a species seem to have this predisposition, to become distressed (like how anxiety was
important to adapting to our environment) but what function does depression serve?
What might be some of the reasons to why we are depressed
Evolutionary theory is the least disputed theory, organized principle and framework for all of the life
sciences, it postulates that there is variation in our design of features, some of us are taller, shorter,
weaker, stronger
Some of these design features are heritable (biological basis, we pass then on to our offspring)
Not all features are heritable, and to the extent that some of us have designed features equip us to our peers
to make us more superior, allow some to be better suited in environment, reproduce better, survive
Those designed features that work well are passed along, the ones that don’t work well tend to die off, and
over time the more useful features tend to spread, so long as the environment and the problems in the
environment are the same, the features become typical of the species (universal to all humans)
Things that seem to be good, overtime become typical of the species, what the species is known for, e.g.
the giraffe and their elongated necks
If we look at our species today and see something that is universal, its possible that that thing evolved, and
was adapted, since we all have it
We as a species have a peculiar universal, the capacity to be sad
If you study any group of people, at some point, everyone will report being sad, we as a species are not
vulnerable to this feeling, we all feel sad
Set of circumstances that can make anyone sad, universal, capacity of being sad and depressed, none of us
are immune, if that’s the case, perhaps there is some function of this, why is it that at species has this
Depression is intermittently so maladaptive, very unproductive, less socialized, there are a lot of things
depressed people do that seem almost intermittently maladaptive, so how could this be an evolved trait
The rank theory or social competition theory of depression, rank theorists think that over the course of
human evolution, resources were in scarceness, reproductively related to resources, food, territory,
things that matter to our survival and reproduction was not in abundance, not enough to go around
As a result, members of the same species must compete for them, out of such competition for resources,
hierarchy emerges, some members will win more often than lose (top of the hierarchy)
Hierarchy is a summary of your wins to losses
And those who emerge at the top, have priority of access to all of resources
Hierarchy is a feature of just about any social organized species (a universal concept), so not surprising
that most species seemed to have evolved particular behavioural strategies to pursue hierarchy
To become equipped with competitive behaviours, two basic strategies involving strategies to escalate and
de-escalate competition
We are either going to pick a fight with someone, or surrender
To escalate a fight, this is a strategy we use when we can beat our competitor, when we are socially higher
and more stronger, to someone who is inferior to us, we fight back
And if our competitor is more superior, stronger, we escape, run away, or surrender
Sometimes escape is not an option, if this is the limit, you can only fight or run away, the losing member
who wants to escape but is cornered, so all it can do is fight (even thought they know they will lose.
Risk being n=injured and killed|)
It would benefit if there was an alternate strategy to these two, when loss is predicted, but escape is not
A wide range of life have an alternate strategy which predisposed them to submissive behaviours, this is
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