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Lecture 1

PSYC 3P60 Lecture 1: PSYC 3P60 Lecture 4

7 Pages
Winter 2016

Course Code

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 
Infant Perception and Cognition
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PSYC 3P60 Lecture 4 Wednesday, Jan 27/16 Infant Perception and Cognition Chaos  We would be bombarded with sensory information and would not be able to process it without perception. Perceptual Development Theoretical Overview  Gestalt psychologists (kohler, Gibsons)  If someone tells you to look at something you can find it by focusing your attention on it, you may miss it if its not pointed out to you.  Brain constantly works to organize sensory information Size constancy  The size of the object does not change due to distance but the retinal image changes, it will appear to look bigger or smaller, but that is not the case.  This is your brain showing organization  Our eyes are capable of light adaptation, our perception is adjusted based on the lighting Three Overarching Themes  How can we ask young infants what they know?  Infants are prepared to learn  Experience matters For infants, we can ask them what they know but looking at what they can do Techniques for testing infants  Preference paradigm: natural bias to look at something that you prefer What can babies see?  Show them cards that have stripes vs. no stripes  Looking to see which side the baby looks at, left or right (pattern is on one of the sides)  Teller Acuity cards o Stripes get smaller and smaller, baby will stop showing a preference and look at all the cards getting smaller in size. At birth  Visual Acuity, 30x worse than that of an adult  Contrast Sensitivity, 20 to 25x less sensitive o Ability to differentiate luminance  Even very young babies, few minutes old they can still pick out large stripes Implications  Blurred faces of mom Preferential looking  Prefer to look at bigger square patterns Do infants prefer attractive faces?  Yes, they prefer to look at more “attractive face” Theme: Infants are prepared to learn  Newborns are drawn to face-like patterns o They look more at a face-like stimulus rather than an inverted stimulus  How specific is this bias? o Bias for: face-like stimulus, or just top-heavy patterns o It happens to be not only face likeness but things with more at the top of the photo o It may not need to be exactly a face, anything face like with more energy at the top seems to be the more likely case. Functional significance  Nevertheless, newborns will look more at faces than anything else in their environment Additional evidence against face-specificity  Biases not specific to human faces  Babies will look more at more “attractive animal” Smell Preference  Infants will turn their head to smell mom’s breast pad over a stranger’s breast pad Sight and Touch  Infants looked longer at pacifier that matched the tactile sensation of what they were sucking  This shoes perceiving, understanding and matching with visual ability *The preference paradigm shows that babies know a difference between two stimuli but not necessarily if they like it. Habituation/Dishabituation  Responses decrease to repeated stimuli  When the stimulus changes our response changes accordingly  Which stimuli are perceived to be different?How can we ask babies?  Can you tell the difference between A and B?  Discrimination: if there is a difference (what they look at)  You can tell babies reactions (grabbing, sucking, looking, smiling) this shows how interested they are in the stimulus. Newborns show the externality effect  If you place a border around two objects they show no habitation which shoes they are just looking at the contours not the actual photo. Implications for faces  At birth newborns tend to look at external contour  This may be due to infant acuity because they cannot actually see facial features, but they can see contour more.  At 3 days of age babies with habituate and dishibituate, but not when the faces don’t have hair. Paradox: are they really insensitive to the internal features?  For attractive hair and face, babies look more at attractive face  And when its an attractive face but not hair compared to unattractive face and hair, they will look at the attractive face with unattractive hair. Phonemic Discrimination (auditory)  Phonemes are very difficult “Ba” vs. “Pa” with a delay , you can tell the difference, if you say them both fast, then you cannot  Repeat “ba” until infants sucking decreases  Then present “Pa” o No change in sucking- no discrimination o Increase in sucking- discrimination  Result: 1 and 4 month old infants could discriminate phonemes. Operant Conditioning  How can we ask young infants?  Do you prefer A or B? o Answer: teach infants to do behavior 1 (e.g. look to the left) to receive stimulus A, and behavior 2 (look to the right) to receive stimulus B.  Sucking behavior, teach infants to suck more to either moms voice or familiar story, they suck more to mom’s voice. Visual Development  Newborns show deficits in o Visual acuity o Contrast sensitivity o Convergence o Coordination o Color perception Auditory Development: Language 
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