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Brock University
Caroline Starrs

Science 1P50: Lecture 2 September 19, 2012 Chapter 1: Environmental Science vs. Environmentalism Environmental Science: us of scientific method(s) to study processes and systems in the environment Environmentalism- working to influence attitudes and policies that affect our environment Scientific Method: observations, questions, hypothesis, predictions, test, results (reality not always like this may be construed)-made by social sciences. Breakdown of what scientist does Observations: what they see or theoretical methods Ecology: an essential aspect in the study of ecology is a question about how matter and energy are exchanged between organisms and their surroundings laws of thermodynamic all energy is radiation from the sun we depend on our environment- we exchange matter and energy with it we eat drink breath we use: energy for heat and mobility, wood for housing and paper, food and water for living everything we use comes from the environment in some shape way or form, it is processed by energy we depen on our environment: environment absorbs our wastes, provides climate stability, protects us from ultraviolet radiation, only needs part of the spectrum (rvc) in cities we tend to think of the environment as a collection of commodities we obtain from around the world but the environment is the very source of our lives and well being natural resources=substances and energy sources needed for survival renewable resources: perpetually available: sunlight, wind, wave energy renew themselves over short periods: timber, water, soil non-renewable reosurces: finite supply can be depleted: oil coal minerals Population and Resources Economic growth tied to exploiting natural resources Population Consumption population increase and become more affluent they want more and more stuff -people overpopulation: a lot of people acess to wealth more and more stuff Environmental degradation Too many people Consumption overpopulation Environmental degrading Use far more than necessary Consumption overpopulation Developed countries 20% population consume 86 aluminum 76 harvested timber 68 energy 61 meat eaten 42 fresh water Population Consumption and Environmental Impact Paul Ehrlich and John Holdren I= P x A x T I environmental impact P population A affluence per person T technology used Ehrlich – population bomb Interpret results with care! Much more complexity look at textbook Ultimate goal: sustainable consumption What is an “environmental problem?” The perception of what constitutes a problem varies between individuals and societies e.g DDT, a pesticide in developing countries welcome because it kills malaria-carrying mosquitoes. In developed countries: not welcome due to death risks Organochlorine Ecological footprints- university of BC The amount of ecologically productive land used by individuals, cities countries etc. Different components to measure an ecological footprint, production and use of goods and services involve land use: have ecological footprints The amount ecologically productive land must supply all the water food energy and goods and service we need/use to support our lifestyle It must also absorb all the wastes we produce Urban footprints imagine Toronto covered by a bubble such as the biosphere in montreal, most people would die in a few days, cities depend on much greater amount of land and environment for survival Now imagine that bubble for Toronto would be to be self-sustaining This is the ecological footprint of the city 48.1 million ha or 185330 sqm 80x the size of Toronto Ecological footprint in reality we are consuming more then the planet can possibly give us, we are outstripping the environment How much biosphere avail per person 18% productive land 4% productive ocean 11.2 billion ha 7 billion people 1.6 global ha per person National footprints in Canada 6.43 hectares/ person Worldwide average 1.6 ha/person Therefore if everyone adopted the Canadian consumptive lifestyle, we would need 4 planets Global footprints (ha/person) 1.qatar 11.8 2.kuwait 9.72 3. UAE 8.44 4. Denmark 8.25 5. USA 7.19 6. Belgium 7.11 7. Australia 6.68 8. Canada 6.43 (look at summary on sakaii) Freeze consumption Current trends by 2030 we will need 2 planets Sustainable development: development that meet the needs of present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Get to use the stuff but dial back the stuff we use, not at such a high rate, possibly new technologies will be less wasteful. Organize social institutions environmentalists influence the culture, groups change how they consume Ket to improving human welfare within the Earth’s carrying capacity Two schools of thought -sustainability is impossible because of limits imposed by non-renewable resources -technology and social organizations can manage in ways that meet essential needs and provide long term growth but no indefinite growth within natural limits Three components of sustainable development –economic social and environmental impulse Is the development that meets the needs of the sresent without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Chapter 2: Environmental History Environmental views in Canada 17-1800s Widespread environemtal destruction European settlement Frontier attitudes Resources appeared inexhaustible Early environmental movement Henry david Thoreau 1817-1862 Writer, waldon pond Observer of nation and how humans can have an impact on their local environment. Early writers influence later activists George perkins marsh 1801-1882 Man and nature: writings influence peo
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