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Chapter 6 - Class #18

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Caroline Starrs

Class #18▯ ▯ Science & Society October. 19, 2011 Lakes vary in their nutrients and oxygen - Oligotrophic lakes and ponds = have low nutrient and high oxygen conditions - Eutrophic lakes and ponds = have high nutrient and low oxygen conditions Aquifers - Groundwater = precipitation that does not evaporate, flow into waterways, or get taken up by organisms - Aquifers = Porous sponge-like formations of rock, sand, or gravel that hold groundwater There are two types of Aquifers - Confined or artesian - water-bearing, porous rocks are trapped between layers of less permeable substrate (i.e., clay) - Is under a lot of pressure - Unconfined Aquifer - no upper layer to confine it - Readily recharged by surface water - Groundwater becomes surface water through springs or human-drilled wells - Groundwater may be ancient: the average age is 1,400 years - Water is unequally distributed across Earth’s surface - Many areas with high population density are water-poor and face serious water shortages Climate Change - Climate change will affect the hydrologic cycle: - Shift-northward in mid-latitude rain belt - Earlier snowmelt and spring runoff - More evapotranspiration - Drier summers in the interior continental region - Additional impacts: - Warmer rivers (impacting fish) - Lower water levels in Great Lakes - H
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