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Chapter 6 - Class #23

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Caroline Starrs

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Class #23▯ ▯ Science & Society October. 31, 2011 Thermal Pollution - Warmer water holds less oxygen - Dissolved oxygen decreases as temperature increases - Industrial cooling heats water - Removing streamside cover also raises water temperature - Water that is too cold causes problems - Water at the bottom of reservoirs is colder - When water is released, downstream water temperatures drop suddenly and may kill aquatic organisms Water pollution comes from point and non-point sources - Point source water pollution = discrete locations of pollution - Factory or sewer pipes - Non-point source water pollution = pollution from multiple cumulative inputs over a large area - Farms, cities, streets, neighborhoods Scientists use several indicators of water quality - Scientists measure properties of water to characterize its quality - Biological indicators: presence of fecal coliform bacteria and other disease- causing organisms - Chemical indicators: pH, nutrient concentration, taste, odor, hardness, dissolved oxygen - Physical indicators: turbidity, color, temperature Oceans cover most of Earth’s surface - The oceans influence global climate, team with biodiversity, facilitate transportation and commerce, and provide resources for us - Oceans influence the biosphere The oceans contain more than water - 96.5% water - Ions of dissolved salts - Nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus) - Dissolved gas - Oxygen is added by plants, bacteria, and atmospheric diffusion Ocean water is vertically structured - Temperature declines with depth - Heavier (colder saltier) water sinks - Temperatures are more stable than land temperatures - Water’s high heat capacity - It takes much more he
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