Tissue engineering Often referred as regenerative medicine Considered as Spare Parts when loosing the original tissue or limb We can do this naturally when we scratch or break bones. The body regenerates. Some tissues are limited to how much they can regenerate like heart tissue cant regenerate after a serious event like a heart attack Field of tissue engineering is to find away to regenerate tissues. Ancient practice Female Mummy ~950710 BCE Made out of wood and had a carved out toe. 3D Printed Body Parts 2016 Used 3D printing to make a functional, customizable limbs. Example: Hands. Used rubber bands and springs. Tissue engineering The application of engineering genetics toward the development of biological substitutes to restore, maintain, or improve functions of human tissue. Must look similar, integrate and function properly with the body. Basic Tools Need Cells Need to know what proteins need to grow the cells growth factors. Needs to take place in the extracellular Matrix (ECM). Need to replicate the conditions for the cells, like bladder cells vs skin cells Scaffolds need to have them in a structural mass not just a lump of cells. You put them onto a scaffold shape so the cells can grow onto the scaffold. Helps to orient the cells on the scaffold shape. Lots of research going in the area o Natural biomaterials o Synthetic biomaterials. using man made materials like polymers and plastics. Customizable scaffold shape. Then you want the scaffold to go away so needs to be biodegradable Biomaterials, scaffolding, and growth factors that bottle neck the progress. Also need to know the timings for when the cells need to grow Cells Not all cells have equal potential to regenerate. o High: skin cells, intestine, liver o Moderate: bone, and muscle o Low: heart cells, and brain cells.