SCIE 1P51 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Anthony Atala, Bone Marrow, Bioreactor

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
Brock University
Department
Science
Course
SCIE 1P51
1
Science 1P51
Organ growth
Anthony Atala- New organs (documentary)
-Age affects organ work
Challenges
2-> Cells (used to engineer organs with printer after growth and reproduction outside body)
3 -> Blood supply chemicals
4 -> Biomaterials (bridge gap to help regenerate tissue)
Luke M. Received an engineered bladder
- 16 surgery’s
- Kidney failure at 10
- Bladder replacement saved his life
- One of the first 10 to receive this surgery
Hydrogel-> network of polymers
- Scaffolding
- Keep things together
- Insoluble
- Delivery mechanism
Collagen -> most cosmetic collagen from cows (99.9%)
O’Brien stops blood from bleeding out
- Invisible
MHDS- multi-head disposition system
- Allows hybrid scaffolds to be made
- Technique
Alginate- used as thickener in dairy products
- Part of list of raw materials
Gelatin- also used in producing skin and other tissues
Electrospinning- like spinning silk
- Uses electric field to create very fine fibres
PCL- Polycaprolactone
- Resistant to water and oil
- Polymer
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2
- Used in making scaffolds
- Breaks down easily (easily excreted)
- Like polyester
Chondrocytes- cartilage cells
GAGs - glycosaminoglycans
- Carbohydrates
- Breaks down into more energy units
Young modulus- measure stiffness of material
Cartilage is hard bearing without tensile strength it is useless
Research goals -> trying to make it more effective in vivo
Methods printer construction
- Obtain materials (from animals)
- 4 categories to look at…
o Mechanical properties
o Cell survival
o Formation of extra cellular matrix
Tests of viability test life of cells
- Test cell to see if working together
- Test to see if blood bearing
- Young’s modulus
- UTS
Still worse off than human cartilage
Tissue engineering
-the application of engineering and genetics toward the development of biological substitutes to
restore, maintain or improve functions of human tissue
Physiologists, clinicians, bioengineers, MEMs engineers, CAD/CAMers, Polymer chemists, material,
scientists, biologists, imaging physicist
-investing + maintaining biofunctionality
-Stem Cells have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to the more specialized cell types.
They remain undifferentiated until protein initiates change.
Examples…
Bone Marrow Transplants
- First model where stem cells were used
- Used to treat leukemia
- Haematopoietic stem cell extracted -> stem cells multiplied in cell culture transplanted into
patient
- Transfusions
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3
Cellular processes (*required)
- Cell replication
- Cell Differentiation
- Cell mortality
- Cell apoptosis
- Cell adhesion (skin)
ECM Extra Cellular matrix
- Mechanical and Biological support environment
- Bioreactors
- Possible procedure
o + stimulatory factors
o Cytokines
o Cell interactions/density
o Oxygen concentrations etc.
- Cultured cells -> scaffolds -> implantation
What is engineered?
- Skin (most successful)
- Pancreas cells
- Bone
- Cartilage (relatively successful)
- Veins
- Bladder (successful transplants)
- Heart tissue (permanent cells)- always in 60
Cells
- Human tissue 1- 3 X 109 cells/ml
- Typical organ 100- 500 ml
Skin
- Connective tissue
- Dermis
- Epidermis
- Most are bilayered constructs
Cloning New Skin
Collagen- cells from donor
Clone from stem cells
Autologous - one from own body (cells)- preferred
Sources of stem cells
- Embryonic (slightly problematic)
- Gut lining
- Fat (liposuction)
- Skin
- Bone marrow
Skin
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Document Summary

2-> cells (used to engineer organs with printer after growth and reproduction outside body) 4 -> biomaterials (bridge gap to help regenerate tissue) One of the first 10 to receive this surgery. Collagen -> most cosmetic collagen from cows (99. 9%) Gelatin- also used in producing skin and other tissues. Uses electric field to create very fine fibres. Cartilage is hard bearing without tensile strength it is useless. Research goals -> trying to make it more effective in vivo. 4 categories to look at : mechanical properties, cell survival, formation of extra cellular matrix. Tests of viability test life of cells. The application of engineering and genetics toward the development of biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve functions of human tissue. Physiologists, clinicians, bioengineers, mems engineers, cad/camers, polymer chemists, material, scientists, biologists, imaging physicist. Stem cells have a unique ability to renew themselves and give rise to the more specialized cell types.

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