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Lecture 8

Lecture 8.docx

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Caroline Starrs

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Lecture 8 Documentary, Horizon: episode playing Gods Documentary: Designer Babies and damages of corporate genetics - Life running out of control - Designer babies and corporate robberies - Gene + protein - Human genome - DNA found in nucleus of cell - Human genome project o Identifying placement of DNA on Genome o 5% of genome too small o June 2000 DNA shaped like spiral staircase - 4 letters ACGT - 3 billion ‘steps” 1953 James Watson - DNA a double helix -Francis Collins- director of human genome project -the part of the genome that controls immune system has been identified - Celera Genomics - 300 million Must understand it before you change it -James Watson father of DNA revolution -Designer baby clinic -Tweaks Genetic makeup to specialized characteristics -fix human flaws by changing genetic makeup - gene for flaws (alcoholism, gay, criminal) -commercial genetic created -gathered 700 ethnic groups approaching extinction - Most pure DNA Designer Babies… Conflict of interest Patenting certain gene sequence What is cloning? Exact copy Monozygotic twins History of cloning Embryology Hans Driesch -1890s - Genetic material can reside in cells of embryos 1 Isolated sea urchin embryo cells -4 or 8 cell stages - Pulled them apart... does this create clones? -Grew to sea urchins - took hundreds of attempts - Hans Spemann 1938 - Salamander embryo - Ability to regenerate tails - Separated cells with fine edged tools - creates identical salamanders - can we place nucleus in other cells? Cloning 4 main types of cloning -molecular - Cellular -embryo, twinning (poor men’s cousin to real cloning) - Nuclear somatic transfer (real cloning) Molecular Cloning -making copies of single molecules Cellular cloning Makes copies of cells to establish cell lines -Used to make human tissues –skin, heart, etc. Embryo twinning Fertilized egg 2+ cell embryos Separated into individual cells -Re- implantation could result in identical animals Somatic cells, nuclear transfer (SCNT) - Nucleus removed from somatic host cell - Nucleus is removed from unfertilized egg -
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