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Lecture 9

Lecture 9.docx

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Caroline Starrs

Lecture 9 Food Additives Food Preservation -Drying (e.g. meat, fish, veggies -> then refrigerated) -Smoking (e.g. meat, fish) -Salting (prized commodity) (draws out moisture) -Freezing (geographically limited) -Concentrating (e.g. fruits, maple syrup, fish) -fermenting (grains, 1000BCE fruits, veggies, cabbage) Food processing - Canning - Nicolas Appert (French) - First cans made of glass - Exclude air, place food in o Not very successful - Tin cans came next (and lead = poisoning) Food laws Egyptians –handling of meat -Greeks and Romans – dilution wine and short values on grain and oils - More concerned about collecting the taxes made off the processed foods -came with the industrial revolution -control over food production -need to process, transport, store, and package foods led to by the start of the food regulations Canada 1875- Inland Revenue Act - “impose license duties on compounders of spirits… to prevent the alterations of food, dring and drugs” (Gnirss, 2008) 1884- Alteration Act -Coffee, pepper, tea, chocolate, etc. 1894- First standard set for tea o Requirement of % of actual tea to be in tea 1920- AA became the food and drug act - This is what is presently enacted - FDA has just approved of genetically enhanced salmon products - Will Canada soon follow? 1927- Food and Drug Act includes Drugs - Previously only food USA Late 1880- Dr. Harvey Washington Wiley - Chemist- Purdue University - Chief of Bureau of chemistry 1 - Later became FDA - Father of pure food - Built up the BOC staff - Created the volunteer “poison squad” Poison squads Used local college students 1902-1904 - “guinea pigs” Fed them meals made with some problem additives at BOC Tested their bodily Fluids for toxicity No deaths, just very serious illnesses “They may get over it, but they’ll never look the same. That kind of a bill of fare would drive most men insane- next week he’ll give them moth balls”… Food Additives First patent for food additive 1886 -Salt (with anti-caking agent) - FDA co. 1906 -Food Drug and Cosmetic act 1938 - US version of Canada’s Food and Drug Act Function of food additives? (GRAS-> GMP -> Regulated) Canadian: “any substances, including any source of radiation, the use of which results in, or may reasonable be expected to result in, it or its byproducts becoming a part of, or affecting the characteristics of a food” American: ”In general anything intentionally added to a food to produce a specific beneficial result” GRAs List - Generally recognized as safe o E.g. salt (still has lethal dose) - Manufacturing love this list - Composed of compounds with… o “common experience” o “Nothing happened” test - No laboratory testing - Not a fixed list, changes are possible New GRAS compounds -scientific studies to show compound safety - Manufacturer responsibility E.g. Zero calorie sweeteners, artificial oils, coloring James Delaney – 1958 - No additive shall be deemed to be safe if it is found to include cancer when ingested by man or animal or if it is found, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of food additives 2 - Directed at red and greed coloring o Showed cancer in rats - This was his proposed amendment to the food, drug and cosmetics act Good manufacturing practice -where a limit is prescribed for a food… is stated to be GMP the amount of the additive added… shall not exceed the amount required to accomplish the purpose for which the additive is permitted to be added to that food - Important to things like flavors -OEG- can only be used in certain foods E.g. Meat, preservatives Functions of food additives Preservatives - Antioxidants – stops food from oxidizing (oxygen reacts with food compounds) - Sequestrants/chelating agents – takes metal contact and protects the food compounds, wraps itself around metal ions - Antimicrobials – protects food compounds from “bugs” Flavors E.g. Natural extracts in juices Flavor enhancers - Causes salvation - E.g. MSGs in noodles - Colors (natural colors are GRAS) o Turning pasteurized apple juice (gray) to look yellow Swee
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