SCIE 1P51 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Harvey Washington Wiley, Good Manufacturing Practice, Anticaking Agent

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
Brock University
Department
Science
Course
SCIE 1P51
1
Lecture 9
Food Additives
Food Preservation
-Drying (e.g. meat, fish, veggies -> then refrigerated)
-Smoking (e.g. meat, fish)
-Salting (prized commodity) (draws out moisture)
-Freezing (geographically limited)
-Concentrating (e.g. fruits, maple syrup, fish)
-fermenting (grains, 1000BCE fruits, veggies, cabbage)
Food processing
- Canning
- Nicolas Appert (French)
- First cans made of glass
- Exclude air, place food in
o Not very successful
- Tin cans came next (and lead = poisoning)
Food laws
Egyptians handling of meat
-Greeks and Romans dilution wine and short values on grain and oils
- More concerned about collecting the taxes made off the processed foods
-came with the industrial revolution
-control over food production
-need to process, transport, store, and package foods led to by the start of the food regulations
Canada
1875- Inland Revenue Act
- “impose license duties on compounders of spirits… to prevent the alterations of food, dring and
drugs” (Gnirss, 2008)
1884- Alteration Act
-Coffee, pepper, tea, chocolate, etc.
1894- First standard set for tea
o Requirement of % of actual tea to be in tea
1920- AA became the food and drug act
- This is what is presently enacted
- FDA has just approved of genetically enhanced salmon products
- Will Canada soon follow?
1927- Food and Drug Act includes Drugs
- Previously only food
USA
Late 1880- Dr. Harvey Washington Wiley
- Chemist- Purdue University
- Chief of Bureau of chemistry
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2
- Later became FDA
- Father of pure food
- Built up the BOC staff
- Created the volunteer “poison squad”
Poison squads
Used local college students 1902-1904
- “guinea pigs”
Fed them meals made with some problem additives at BOC
Tested their bodily Fluids for toxicity
No deaths, just very serious illnesses
“They may get over it, but they’ll never look the same. That kind of a bill of fare would drive most men
insane- next week he’ll give them moth balls”…
Food Additives
First patent for food additive 1886
-Salt (with anti-caking agent)
- FDA co. 1906
-Food Drug and Cosmetic act 1938
- US version of Canada’s Food and Drug Act
Function of food additives?
(GRAS-> GMP -> Regulated)
Canadian: “any substances, including any source of radiation, the use of which results in, or may
reasonable be expected to result in, it or its byproducts becoming a part of, or affecting the
characteristics of a food”
American: ”In general anything intentionally added to a food to produce a specific beneficial
result”
GRAs List
- Generally recognized as safe
o E.g. salt (still has lethal dose)
- Manufacturing love this list
- Composed of compounds with…
o “common experience”
o “Nothing happened” test
- No laboratory testing
- Not a fixed list, changes are possible
New GRAS compounds
-scientific studies to show compound safety
- Manufacturer responsibility
E.g. Zero calorie sweeteners, artificial oils, coloring
James Delaney 1958
- No additive shall be deemed to be safe if it is found to include cancer when ingested by man or
animal or if it is found, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of food additives
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Document Summary

Drying (e. g. meat, fish, veggies -> then refrigerated) Exclude air, place food in: not very successful. Tin cans came next (and lead = poisoning) More concerned about collecting the taxes made off the processed foods. Greeks and romans dilution wine and short values on grain and oils. Need to process, transport, store, and package foods led to by the start of the food regulations. Impose license duties on compounders of spirits to prevent the alterations of food, dring and drugs (gnirss, 2008) Coffee, pepper, tea, chocolate, etc: requirement of % of actual tea to be in tea. Fda has just approved of genetically enhanced salmon products. 1920- aa became the food and drug act. Us version of canada"s food and drug act. Fed them meals made with some problem additives at boc. They may get over it, but they"ll never look the same.

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