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Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx


Department
Science
Course Code
SCIE 1P51
Professor
Caroline Starrs
Lecture
10

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Lecture 10
Pharmaceuticals
Science
1 Chemistry
+2 Pharmacology -- Pharmaceutical industry Economics
+3 genetics
Human experiments
In 1300, Pope Boniface VIII issued an edict to prevent dead bodies being dismembered, to stop knights
from boiling the bones of dead comrades and shipping them home to avoid burial in unconsecrated
ground.
- This law was then interpreted to include all human dissection
- Until about 3 centuries ago the human body and mind were not considered an appropriate
domain for science… expect that secret autopsies were performed all along in universities
First “clinical trials
-Clinical trials have a long history, even if not acknowledged as clinical trials
-formal record of clinical trials dates back to time of the “trialists
1628- Dr. Van Helmont proposed a therapeutic trial of bloodletting for fevers
- Leaches or open vein and was bled into bowl
- “controlled”
- 2 dice- one black and one white
o Black- bloodletting
o White- noxious potions
- More deaths from bloodletting than the fevers
1747- Dr. James Lind
-sailor doctor
- Scurvy
- tested different interventions on the infected sailors (vinegar meat, eating limes)
-used oranges and lemons for scurvy
1909- Paul Ehrlich arsphenamine
-cure for gonorrhea?
1929: alexander Fleming- penicillin
1935: Gerhard Domagk sulphonamide
1944: Waksman- streptomycin
By 1950, FDA and Health Canada had a systematic methodology for studying and evaluating
therapeutic interventions
Protection of clinical trial volunteers
-attention to protecting participants began after WWII after Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials
- More than 30 different experiments described at the trials
- Concentration camp victims men, women, children
- Two types of experiments/motivations

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1. Scientific pursuit designed to yield information applicable to military and political
goals
2. Advance person goals/agendas
o Political
o Academic
Nazi Experiments
1942: high altitude or low pressure experiments at Dachau- 200 prisoners (male)
- To help German pilots who had to eject at high altitudes
- Individuals subjected to low pressure to simulate atmospheric conditions at high altitudes (up to
68, 000 feet)
- Test the limits of human endurance at extremely high altitudes with and without oxygen
- 80 died during experiment, the other 120 prisoners were executed
1942-1943: Freezing experiments at Dachau
- To help government pilots who ejected into cold water on or in Siberian front
- Victims placed in tanks of ice water or kept naked outdoors
- Victims in pain, foamed at the mouth, lost consciousness as core temp dropped
- Investigated how to treat people who had been chilled or frozen by testing different methods of
re-warming
1942-1945: Malaria experiments at Dachau
- Search for cures as malaria was contracted by soldiers in infected areas
- Victims infected by mosquitoes or injected with extract of mucus glands of mosquitoes
- Victims during interventions tried to test efficacy
- Over 1000 victims were used in these experiments. Many died and others suffered severe pain
and permanent disability
1943-1944: Phosphorus burn experiments at Buchenwald
- To treat soldiers who had been burned by explosives
- Test the effect of various pharmaceutical preparations on phosphorus burns. Theses burns were
inflicted on the victims with phosphorus matter taken from bombs, and caused severe pain,
suffering, and serious bodily injury.
1944: Seawater experiment at Dachau
- To study various methods of making sea water drinkable. The victims were deprived of all food
and given only chemically processed sea water. Such experiments caused great pain and
suffering and resulted in serious bodily injury to the victims
During the Nuremberg war crime trials, 23 German doctors were charged with crimes against humanity
for “performing medical experiments upon concentration camp inmates and other living human
subjects, without their consent”
- 16 found guilty
- 7 received death penalty by hanging
- 5 life in prison
- 4 various terms 10-20 years in prison
- 7 were acquitted
o 4 committed suicide
o
**EXAM** Courts judgment included the Nuremberg Code
-consists of 10 basic principles to govern medical experimentation
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