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Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx

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Caroline Starrs

Lecture 10 Pharmaceuticals Science 1 Chemistry2 PharmacologyPharmaceutical industry Economics 3 geneticsHuman experiments In 1300 Pope Boniface VIII issued an edict to prevent dead bodies being dismembered to stop knights from boiling the bones of dead comrades and shipping them home to avoid burial in unconsecrated groundThis law was then interpreted to include all human dissectionUntil about 3 centuries ago the human body and mind were not considered an appropriate domain for science expect that secret autopsies were performed all along in universitiesFirst clinical trials Clinical trials have a long history even if not acknowledged as clinical trials formal record of clinical trials dates back to time of the trialists 1628 Dr Van Helmont proposed a therapeutic trial of bloodletting for feversLeaches or open vein and was bled into bowlcontrolled2 dice one black and one white o Black bloodletting o White noxious potionsMore deaths from bloodletting than the fevers 1747 Dr James Lindsailor doctor Scurvytested different interventions on the infected sailors vinegar meat eating limes used oranges and lemons for scurvy 1909 Paul Ehrlicharsphenaminecure for gonorrhea 1929 alexander Fleming penicillin 1935 Gerhard Domagksulphonamide 1944 Waksman streptomycin By 1950 FDA and Health Canada had a systematic methodology for studying and evaluating therapeutic interventionsProtection of clinical trial volunteers attention to protecting participants began after WWII after Nuremberg Trials Nuremberg TrialsMore than 30 different experiments described at the trialsConcentration camp victimsmen women childrenTwo types of experimentsmotivations
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