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Islam; Identity and Authority
Madina was a theocratic state that maintains the message of God (Qur’an) as its identity (islam)
the direction of prayer was changed from the city of Jerusalem to the Ka’bah (is changed
creating the Kabbah as a new identity for muslims, the center of prayer upon which for muslims
Bearing witness and performing shahadah turns a person into a muslim and to live by the
shari’ah that was taught by God.
Kharijis believed that anyone who commited major crimes cannot be regarded as Muslims and
should be treated as disbelievers.
Identity of the Sects
Allegiance to Ali and descendants and a right to spiritual and temporal authority after
Muhammad (pbuh) and one individual that is to be the rightful and divinely leader of
the muslim community.
messianic expectations because the death of Husays was on the tenth of Muharram and
the shia people celebrate the Ashura expressing sorrow and merriment as well as
blessing and mystery.
II. Sunni; imam is regarded leader of prayer at a mosque
Muhummad (pbuh) is the messenger of God and the Qur’an that is revealed to him is the divine
word of God.
The Qur’an is held as a canon; The status of Quran
Muhammad (pbuh) is an unlettered prophet and he can neither read nor write which is
proof the words being the pure words of God; not contaminated with human wisdom
making the word divine
Muslims believe that the Qur’an is a heavenly book that is preserved by God and is the
“mother of the book
qur’an literature shapes the Arabic language literature (literary expression, powerful
and elegant words and phrases
recited in a child’s birth, at marriage, at important business deals and to celebrate
success or express sorrow at misfortune , recited at special public occasions, radio and
television and reciting it is considered virtuous, it also consists of much of Arabic
calligraphy art (social roles)
Authority of Interpretive Extenstions