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chapter 27.docx

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Daniel Glenday

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Ethnicity: -usually a cultural phenomenon -can have race socially defined as a part of it -ethnic groups are made up of people who has perceived cultural markers that are significant ex. Dress and religion -the cultural aspectlanguage, religion, customs, values -physical distinctions don’t cause difference in behaviour -ethnic groups can experience prejudice and discrimination -ethnic origins in Canada: -people who use multiple responses -about 20 million Canadians use multiple responses -ex. If do a survey and say who are you, not many people put just Canadian -if write a multiple response, would list diff backgrounds -this shows that identity is important -many Canadians identify themselves as multiple ethnic origins Ethnic traits: -religion, language, clothing, holidays -sense of community, ethic people are aware that they belong to a certain group and other people in society are also aware of that -feelings of ethnocentrismit is widespread and boils down to a culture (or subculture) that i belong to is the best one -and we have the most favoured set of attributes compared to other subcultures -my people are harder, more moral, better in all kind of ways than the outsider -tend to get ethnocentrism within ethnic identification Membershipcomes from birth -don’t choose to be born w/n a certain ethnic group -not something that you achieve but it is ascribed -sometimes ethnicity is associated w/ territory -ex. Quebec: home of the French Canadians -you can also have residential segregation -you find this across North America -certain areas of the city are monopolized by certain ethnic groups -ex. Greek along the Danforth (therefore it is a Greek area) -this can be voluntary or involuntary -in an apartheid society, certain groups must by law live in certain areas and places -cannot live in other areas b/c another group lives in that area -in Canada, the residential segregation is more voluntary -people choose to live in a area where there are people of their ethnic group -this is most seen when people first immigrate to Canada -people feel more comfortable living among people who speak the same language, eat the same food -usually what takes place is that their offspring moves out of the center and moves to the suburbs which are more multi-racial -they don’t find it as intimidating as their parents did -another thing that can be done is to network w/n your community for either business opportunities or ethnic sociability -great deal of business gets done by ethnic enclaves? -usually dentists, lawyers, accountants from that ethnic group will set up shop w/n that community -thus they have an ethnic foundation for their business Ethic traits lead to institutional completeness: when a community is self-sufficient -they’ve got restaurants, theatres, schools, clothing stores, grocery stores, doctors, lawyers etc -mean you can get all the services that you want in your community -the more institutional complete your community, the less people need to go outside of their society -Canadian sociologists are the best in the world when dealing w/ race and ethnicity b/c we’ve got the best areas to study b/c Toronto is the most multi-ethnic city in the world -so this is when a particular community possesses all the services it needs for that particular group Social significance of race and ethnicity: -when ask Canadians “what do you think of race and ethnicity”, most are uncomfortable w/ the terms -one of the mainstream interpretations, in a pluralistic, open, upwardly mobile society, individualistic type society, meritocratica society that rewards people based on merit -so Canada sees itself as a meritocracy and whn you mention race and ethnicity, what those terms tend to do is diminish the possibility of upward mobility -they bring out images that a person’s destiny is determined by birth and is beyond personal control -historically in a Canada, ethnicity has been the basis of hierarchical ranking relative to resources, wealth -the first to point this out was John Porter who wrote the Vertical Mosaic -talks about the hierarchical ranking of ethnic groups in Canada based on income -argued that prior to 1968, there was an entrance group status -meant that by and large, ethnic groups that entered the country were slotted into the bottom of the income hierarchy -and the groups that were affected by that were Eastern Europeans for the most part -this also happened to Japanese and Chinese -beginning in the 1880s, the west was largely empty and the American poured into Alberta -they began to talk about succeeding to the united states -the federal government of Ottawa didn’t like this so they built the CPR -in combination w/ the CPR, it opened up the immigration gate to eastern Europeans who were peasants from Poland and the Ukraine -when they came, the train didn’t stop until it got to Western Canada so thay they would settle into the land -so when Porter looks at income, he finds a close relationship b/w eastern europenas and a lower SES -so what we’rew looking at is ethnic stratification -this all changed in 1968 when a points system was introduce -t was that anyone could immigrate to Canada as long as they had th required umber of points -so this encouraged immigration form higher SES groups -points were education, work experience,
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