Class Notes (806,507)
Canada (492,261)
Brock University (11,827)
Sociology (686)
SOCI 2F60 (43)

Race and Ethnicity

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Brock University
Daniel Glenday

SOCA01-Lecture 10 Race and Ethnicity: (no marginality and creativity on the final) Social construction: -sociology on race and ethnicity is important b.c we look at how race and ethnicity shape power and resources -race and ethnicity often focus on inequality -some people think race and ethnicity is proscribedborn w/ it and so unchangeable -traits that you’re born w/ -sociology says race and ethnicity are socially constructed -consider greater importance for sociology than in biology -racial distinctions aren’t biological given -some scientists believe we all belong to one race and this is in Africa -some people think we all come from one mother named Lucy who is from Africa Race: -is misused -some people think iof race in connection w/ skin colour -the Caucassion race-->white people or people of European backround -some people label Jes as a race but they are an ethnic group -another misuse is nationality -the English racewrong -the human racewrong -not the way sociologists or biologists use the term race -Canteburry people who have been singled out as inferior or inferior on the basis physical of genetic characteristics -term racism is also misusedmeans to be prejudiced against a socially defined group of ppl and to discriminate them based on genetic inferiority of that group of individuals -often find today that when people see prejudice or discrimination, they think that it is based on racism but it’s not always true -can discriminate against people not just for race but can also discriminate based on religion, colour of hair, etc. -should be aware of the fact that racism is the discrimination against people who show genetic inferiority Race biology of society: -race is a social construct -race matters historically b/c it has been associated w/ inequality -the group defined as genetically inferior experiences prejudice -scapegoating is when a group of people blame and inferior group of people for their problems that they themselves have created -problems w/ race -this system of classification, white and non-white took hold in western Europe during the era of colonialism -this system is now outdated b/c many ppl don’t fit in this either/or classification -Asians, Africans, etc don’t fit this type of scheme -another problem is fiction of pure race -sociologists use race b/c the perception of race affects the lives of people profoundly -it remains a social category -but it lacks a biological foundation -racial purity is thought to exist but this is fiction -most of us are genetically mixed -we have more biological similarity in places like Japan which has been isolated from the rest of the world for a long period of time and today it still doesn’t have immigration -there is a small Chinese and Korean population but are isolated from the larger society -even so, they are not a race biologically speaking -why are people mixed? -migration -can also have immigrationmoving into a county -emigrationmoving out of the country -this is increasing w/ the modern world -intermarriage is also increasing so these make it impossible to draw biological lines b/w people -another problem of race: genetic variation (height, size, etc.) w/n groups, is greater than genetic variation between groups -so when you compare 2 groups, the genetic variation is smaller in a b/w group comparison than w/n a particular group -so this makes a hold as a biological category -society arbitrarily selects certain traits -but when look at the entire range of genetic characteristics, the genetic biological sectioning of race falls to pieces -this means that the concept of race is social rather than biological -thus people are pinned w/ a racial tag by society and it is unjustified -Tiger Woods: -has an interesting racial background Aboriginal White Black Chinese Thai Father Mother Tiger Cablinasian -Woods actually invented the term -consciousness of kind -people are conscious of belonging to a particular group that has been socially defined -this segregates populations and can create an insider (i belong to thins group and the rest of society belongs to another group) -this can lead to social conflict Types of racism: -classifying yourself as a part of a race is incorrect -prejudice is an attitude, discrimination is a behaviour -institutional racism -this is genuine racism -you can find this in apartheid societies like south Africa and the southern part of the united states -this is when government and the state develops laws which discriminate against people based on their socially defined race -the most prominent laws are the laws of segregation -make intermarriage illegal -systematic racism: when you establish policies that discriminate against certain groups mauybe b/c of size -ex. Toronto police force said that you had to be of a certain height and size before you were accepted -this left out women and certain ethnic groups -police and firefighters are example of this -included groups that were larger and excluded groups that were smaller -cycle of racism -physical markers are used to distinguish certain groups -create inequality based on race -ex. Colonialism and slavery -next step is to provide diff working conditions b/w subordinates and superordinates -creates behavioural differences -perceptions of different behaviours leads to stereotypesto make an evaluation of somebody based on that individual’s membership in a socially defined group Ethnicity: -usually a cultural phenomenon -can have race socially defined as a part of it -ethnic groups are made up of people who has perceived cultural markers that are significant ex. Dress and religion -the cultural aspectlanguage, religion, customs, values -physical distinctions don’t cause difference in behaviour -ethnic groups can experience prejudice and discrimination -ethnic origins in Canada: -people who use multiple responses -about 20 million Canadians use multiple responses -ex. If do a survey and say who are you, not many people put just Canadian -if write a multiple response, would list diff backgrounds -this shows that identity is important -many Canadians identify themselves as multiple ethnic origins Ethnic traits: -religion, language, clothing, holidays -sense of community, ethic people are aware that they belong to a certain group and other people in society are also aware of that -feelings of ethnocentrismit is widespread and boils down to a culture (or subculture) that i belong to is the best one -and we have the most favoured set of attributes compared to other subcultures -my people are harder, more moral, better in all kind of ways than the outsider -tend to get ethnocentrism within ethnic identification Membershipcomes from birth -don’t choose to be born w/n a certain ethnic group -not something that you achieve but it is ascribed -sometimes ethnicity is associated w/ territory -ex. Quebec: home of the French Canadians -you can also have residential segregation -you find this across North America -certain areas of the city are monopolized by certain ethnic groups -ex. Greek along the Danforth (therefore it is a Greek area) -this can be voluntary or involuntary -in an apartheid society, certain groups must by law live in certain areas and places -cannot live in other areas b/c another group lives in that area -in Canada, the residential segregation is more voluntary -people choose to live in a area where there are people of their ethnic group -this is most seen when people first immigrate to Canada -people feel more comfortable living among people who speak the same language, eat the same food -usually what takes place is that their offspring moves out of the center and moves to the suburbs which are more multi-racial -they don’t find it as intimidating as their parents did -another thing that can be done is to network w/n your community for either business opportunities or ethnic sociability -great deal of business gets done by ethnic enclaves? -usually dentists, lawyers, account
More Less

Related notes for SOCI 2F60

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.