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Lecture 4

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Dennis Wall

SOCI2P11 D2 LEC02 Monday, October 1 Quantitative and qualitative measurement and sampling Readings: Neuman/Robson, chapters 6 & 7 Due: Assignment 1 Steps from Research Statement (RS) to Hypothesis – (3 steps) Independent Variable Dependent Variable Step 1 [RS – Conceptual hypothesis]: Hypothetical Causal Abstract construct Abstract construct Relationship Conceptualization Conceptualization Level of Theory Step 2 [RS – Conceptual definition]: Conceptual Definition Conceptual Definition Operationalization Operationalization Operational Level Step 3 [RS – Empirical hypothesis]: Indicator or Measure Tested Empirical Indicator or Measure Empirical Hypothesis Level 1. step1: Abstract construct: Conceptual Development of RS 2. step 2: Conceptual Definition: Operational definition of concepts in RS 3. step 3: Indicators and/or Measures Empirical definition of operational definitions of RS Example: Abstract 1. [Step 1] This study examines the relationship between occupational categories and type of sexual harassment endured by women a. the concepts are occupational categories and sexual harassment b. the relationship between the two concepts is that women will endure more sexual harassment in some types of occupations as compared to other types of occupations 1 Conceptual definition 2. [Step 2] My definitions of the two concepts are the following: a. occupational categories are conceptualized as: i. primary occupations ii. secondary occupations iii. tertiary occupations b. sexual harassment is conceptualized as the following: i. visual ii. verbal iii. written iv. power v. force Indicators and measures 3. [Step 3] My empirical hypothesis is: “Occupational category determines the types of sexual harassment experienced by women” --specifically stated, the hypothesis is that: “There exists a positive relationship between working in the secondary sector and experiencing all types of sexual harassment” --here we have simply included a greater degree of specification The independent variable is the secondary sector The dependent variable is types of sexual harassment experienced a. The indicators of my independent variable, occupational category, are the following: i. primary occupations are operationalized as all occupations in the natural resource sector including fishing, farming, mining, timber, and petroleum ii. secondary occupations are operationalized as all occupations in the manufacturing sector including automobile and machinery production, food processing, commercial and residential construction, electronics, and household wares. iii. tertiary occupations are operationalized as all occupations in the service sector including health care, teaching, tourism, administration, human resources, and consulting. 2 b. The indicators for each of the attributes of my dependent variable, sexual harassment, are the following: i. Visual harassment includes staring, posters, magazines, and calendars ii. Verbal harassment includes requests for dates, lewd comments, sex jokes, and questions about personal life iii. Written harassment includes love letters, obscene letters, cards, emails, and faxes iv. Touching includes violating space, patting, grabbing, caressing, kissing, and fondling v. Power includes using position to insist on dates and other things, promising promotions, threatening with negative impact on job vi. Force includes rape, and physical assault Concept (e.g. SES) Variables (e.g. of SES they might be: occupation, education, and income) Indicators and / or measures (e.g. of occupation, education, and income) education – example of i
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