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SOCI 3P01 (25)


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Daniel Glenday

Lecture 6 – Stratification Part 1 Occupational Hierarchy of Prestige Supreme Court Judge 1. Professionals a. Teachers/Professors e. Engineers b. Physicians f. Architects c. Chartered Accountants g. Lawyers d. Dentists 2. White Collar a. Successful Independent Entrepreneurs d. Supervisory b. Executive e. Clerical c. Managerial 3. Technical a. Computer types; software, hardware, programming 4. Skilled Trades (Aristocracy of labour) a. Automotive d. Carpenters b. Tool and Dye e. Tinsmith c. Electricians 5. Semi-Skilled Work a. McJobs (service sector) c. Manufacturing b. Sales clerk d. Truck drivers 6. Unskilled a. Janitorial b. Migrant farm workers (See John Steinberg’s Grapes of Wrath) c. Street Sweepers d. Shoe Shiners - Social Stratification = social inequality  conflict theorists like political reasons for inequality - Social complexity  Job/occupational complexity  how many distinct occupations are there in society  as society becomes more modern, more jobs  a complex division of labour  division of labour = number of occupations  social differentiation = modern society is more complex  in our world, there are 4000 distinct occupational specialties (some pay more than others)  if postal workers make more than teachers, teachers force the TDSB to pay them more –they want to maintain the historical trend (they were always paid more than postal workers) - those who work in specific occupations will use legitimacy argumence (wtf?) – someone will make more money than you because it’s justified – they have more intelligence, and more education and skills - Natural talent is unevenly distributed – some people score higher/lower than other people - People get jobs probably by networking – you know a friend or family member that has links on jobs (you have approval of someone already working there) - There’s a powerful link between education and income - Gaetano Mosca:  Inequality is inevitable in society  A political system is critical for social order?  Coordination – decision making  If there’s no political system, there will be chaos  You need coordination of people’s behavior and then decision making - Power inequality:  Leaders make decisions – leadership  Leaders have more power than followers  If power differences are inevitable, so are material differences (income, money)  When you have power inequality, you have material inequality - Michelles – The Iron Law of Oligarchy:  A group of people are running society  Leaders may promise change, but inequality and corruption always returns - Lord Actin – Absolute power corrupts absolutely - Those with more power will use that power to exploit others and gain economic advantage - Inequality is inevitable - Cynic  Someone who hates people  People described Maskow as a cynic and a reactionary (conservative) - Maskow used functional theory because it said inequality was inevitable - Stratification = the process by which people are socially ranked based on social characteristics - Over time we get more wealthy - Divide the population into 5 groups (20%)  Top 20% get 40% of the total income  Bottom 20% gets 6% of the total income  Top 20% - people with university degrees  As you go down, you get fewer people with university degrees  Stayed the same from 1951 to 2005 - Social structure  It lasts over time – through generations  Once it gets established in society, it stays around, it is resistant to change - Liberals try to redistribute income so people who make les get money from high earners - Valued resources  Used to locate people on the social hierarchy - Wealth can be  Home, equipment, RRSP, non-liquid assests (ie. house)  Liquid money – money is a medium of exchange  We live in a world dominated by money exchange - Where you are ranked is based on  wealth and prestige  prestige refers to social standing in society (people look up to you, honour you, people give you a break)  supreme court judge – most prestigious - Power:  The ability to determine the fate of other people  Politicians have power  Professional associations have power over their members – they decide who gets in, they can also throw you out (called disciplining others)  They look after each other  Other professionals don’t have this power (non-professionals)  Professionals = licensed practitioners – only someone who’s a licensed practitioner can practice in their fields, pretending to be one is illegal  OCPS (Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons – this body runs physicians and surgeons  Professional associations try to maintain a legal monopoly  Ie. Noone else can practice medicine other than physicians  Physicians have a legal monopoly over the body (except the mouth – dentists) and mind (court case – summons a psychiatrist)  Only psychiatrists can prescribe drugs – legal monopoly  Some people argue that the mass media has a legal monopoly; others say that the mass media just has influence – it can influence you to do something, but they cant coerce you into doing something - Power, prestige, and wealth (big 3) go together - Generally, if you have wealth, you have power; you’re also likely to have prestige  Businessmen are seen as greedy, taking advantage of people – they lack prestige  Rock stars: have wealth, they crave prestige  Bono – goes to Africa  Bob _____ - one of the first musicians to go into charity because of a lack of prestige - Power, prestige, and wealth don’t always go together  John Gotti – wealthy mobster, powerful, but no prestige  Mother Teresa – has prestige and power, but poor (vows of poverty taken)  Jimmy Hoffa:  Teamsters (truck drivers) union leader  Did deals with the mob  Got caught, went to jail, came out, wanted his job back, the mafia didn’t want him, he disappeared  Had power and wealth, but no prestige  If you get wealth under shady conditions, prestige is usually withheld (exception: Kennedy clan)  Kennedy’s:  The original Kennedy (father) was a bootlegger  Sold alcohol  Made millions Social Mobility - Moving up/down the class hierarchy/stratification system - Intergenerational mobility – your occupation, when it’s all said and done, compared to your parents; can be upwards or downwards - Intragenerational mobility:  Upward intragenerational mobility – you start off at a crappy job, end up with a good job; you move up before you die  Downward intragenerational mobility – you start off with a good job, get kicked out of the association, end up with a crappy job; you move down - A persons occupational standing is compared to a parent’s occupational standing  Can have upward intergenerational mobility  There’s also downward intergenerational mobility (called social sliders)  If parents are very successful in life, it’s very hard to top them  Sometimes when children come from a successful family, it’s hard for the kids to adjust - Canada is a highly mobile country  Upward intergenerational mobility is 20%  It siphen’s off social discontent by giving people upward mobility  Society has rewarded talented people of the working class for their hard work  You can co-opt them, they become ____ rather than radicals  This is the way the system is supposed to work: superior ability should be rewarded  Ability equals merit  If you have ability, society will reward you with wealth, prestige, and power  Children of immigrants to Canada do better educationally, have higher levels of educational attainment, and have higher levels of occupational achievement/attainment than Canadian born children - Status refers to one of the skilled trades - Rank – ie. professional, blue collar, etc.  Status is a position within the rank  Ie. rank = professional, power = teacher - Ascription based stratification systems are one in which allocation ranks are based on qualities one is born with - Ascribed societies are traditional societies – use ascription a lot - The only society that uses ascription more than ascribed societies is Apartheid societies - Apartheid society:  a society based on racial preferences (ie. the former South Africa)  based on the notion of racial superiority and inferiority  the key here is segregation of the races  Ie. Housing, schools, transportation, restaurants, hotels (ie. rat pack), theatres, drinking fountaints  Race = ascription - Ethnicity can be seen as an ascribed trait - The ascriptive process here is stereotyping  If an ethnic group is seen as inferior: negative stereotyping - All traditional societies were caste systems  Ie. England: peasents  ____  merchents  church etc.. - Open societies – fluid, can have movement,
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