Humans have forever reflected on their own societies and cultures. We are looking at a much more recent period of time. The scholars of that period tended to be armchair scholars . They weren"t out with the cultures, they were working from home after reading reports. There were some workers who did more face to face research within cultures. (eg. Lewis henry morgan, horatio hale; both interested in the iroquois, both spent time with them. ). These men were writing in the context that the iroquois would disappear due to cultural evolution. Modern anthropology shifts away from armchair scholars to long term fieldwork. Bronislaw malinowski was a polish migrant to britain. He had been involved with short trips to papua new guinea during ww1. He was interned in papua new guinea as he was seen as an enemy/alien. He decided to stay there and put two years in the. This long term residence is often seen as initiating long term fieldwork.