It is the things we intake and the things we output (waste products of our consumption). Non-market economies needs can be met by spending time/labour, not cash. Scenario where you can meet your basic needs through labour which will provide you with what you need without giving money (eg. pastoralism, horticulturalism, etc). Modes of consumption- linked to mode of production. Foraging: minimalism, finite needs, once you have what you need you stop production. eg. vishvajit pandya onge worked with foraging people in indonesia in december 2004. Foragers had re-established their lives easily, they didn"t require much from the government, went back to fishing almost immediately. Industrialism: consumerism, infinite needs, we are encouraged to want more and more. Canadian centre for policy alternatives, june 2008: put out a report where they tried to calculate the ecological footprint by income in canada. 10% of people had an extra 12. 4 hectares needed for others. The poorest 10% only used 5 hectares of land.