SOCI 2P11 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Binary Relation, Research I University, Falsifiability

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Quantitative and Qualitative Research
I. Quantitative research
i. - hard data
ii. - linear research path [below]
II. Qualitative research
i. - soft data -> highly interpretive [eg. Feelings, experiences; open ended
questions]
ii. - non-linear research path [not straight forward -> goes back and forth]
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III. Contrasting qualitative and quantitative research
Quantitative
Qualitative
numbers
words
researcher‟s view
participant‟s view
distance
proximity
theory testing
theory emergent
static [questionnaire; 1 time]
process [back and forth]
structured
unstructured [opinion]
hard, reliable data
rich, deep data
generalization
contextual [not the same in other
situations]
behaviour
meaning [what the indiv says]
macro
micro
artificial settings [in a lab]
natural settings [bar, school]
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Issues in quantitative design
I. Unit of analysis
- the unit of analysis is the major entity that you are analyzing in your study
- any of the following could be a unit of analysis in a study:
- individuals
- groups
- artifacts (books, photos, newspapers)
- geographical units (town, census tract, state)
- social interactions (dyadic relations, divorces, arrests)
II. Two research fallacies [better known fallacies]
An error you would make based on some false perception
i. - ecological fallacy
- the ecological fallacy occurs when you make conclusions about individuals based only
on analyses of group data
ii. - exception fallacy or reductionism
- occurs when you reach a group conclusion on the basis of exceptional cases
III. Exhaustive and exclusive attributes of variables
i. - exhaustive attributes
ii. - exclusive attributes
IV. Variables in quantitative research
1. Narrowing and clarifying the problem
The following general questions can be used to unpack a problem:
What are the major concepts?
What is happening here?
What are the issues?
Is one thing affecting, causing, or producing a change in something else?
Why is this so?
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Document Summary

Quantitative and qualitative research: quantitative research, - hard data, - linear research path [below] Qualitative research: - soft data -> highly interpretive [eg. feelings, experiences; open ended questions, - non-linear research path [not straight forward -> goes back and forth] Qualitative words participant s view proximity theory emergent process [back and forth] unstructured [opinion] rich, deep data contextual [not the same in other situations] meaning [what the indiv says] micro natural settings [bar, school] Quantitative numbers researcher s view distance theory testing static [questionnaire; 1 time] structured hard, reliable data generalization behaviour macro artificial settings [in a lab] Issues in quantitative design: unit of analysis. The unit of analysis is the major entity that you are analyzing in your study. Any of the following could be a unit of analysis in a study: individuals. Geographical units (town, census tract, state) artifacts (books, photos, newspapers) social interactions (dyadic relations, divorces, arrests)

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