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Lecture 3

SOCI 2P11 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Binary Relation, Research I University, Falsifiability


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 2P11
Professor
Dennis Wall
Lecture
3

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1
Quantitative and Qualitative Research
I. Quantitative research
i. - hard data
ii. - linear research path [below]
II. Qualitative research
i. - soft data -> highly interpretive [eg. Feelings, experiences; open ended
questions]
ii. - non-linear research path [not straight forward -> goes back and forth]

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2
III. Contrasting qualitative and quantitative research
Quantitative
Qualitative
numbers
words
researcherā€Ÿs view
participantā€Ÿs view
distance
proximity
theory testing
theory emergent
static [questionnaire; 1 time]
process [back and forth]
structured
unstructured [opinion]
hard, reliable data
rich, deep data
generalization
contextual [not the same in other
situations]
behaviour
meaning [what the indiv says]
macro
micro
artificial settings [in a lab]
natural settings [bar, school]

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3
Issues in quantitative design
I. Unit of analysis
- the unit of analysis is the major entity that you are analyzing in your study
- any of the following could be a unit of analysis in a study:
- individuals
- groups
- artifacts (books, photos, newspapers)
- geographical units (town, census tract, state)
- social interactions (dyadic relations, divorces, arrests)
II. Two research fallacies [better known fallacies]
An error you would make based on some false perception
i. - ecological fallacy
- the ecological fallacy occurs when you make conclusions about individuals based only
on analyses of group data
ii. - exception fallacy or reductionism
- occurs when you reach a group conclusion on the basis of exceptional cases
III. Exhaustive and exclusive attributes of variables
i. - exhaustive attributes
ii. - exclusive attributes
IV. Variables in quantitative research
1. Narrowing and clarifying the problem
The following general questions can be used to unpack a problem:
ā€¢ What are the major concepts?
ā€¢ What is happening here?
ā€¢ What are the issues?
ā€¢ Is one thing affecting, causing, or producing a change in something else?
ā€¢ Why is this so?
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