Who are criminals: why study crime, levels of analysis crime, approaches to studying crime, contemporary criminology. It is the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It includes the processes of making laws, breaking laws, and reacting to the breaking of laws. Its objective is the development of a body of general and verified principles and od other types of knowledge regarding this process of law, crime, and treatment (p. 9, textbook) Age of culpability e. g. canada is 12 years. 1500s, 1700s england, illegal to be unemployed and poor. 1997-2003, 660+ new crime created in england and wales. Until 2004, marriage between man and a woman. Understand society and compare with other societies. Situational: immediate circumstances; interactions between people, group behaviour, local environment. Social structure: context of social relationships and institutions (education, family, economic, legal systems) Consensus (conservative and liberal: law protects common good, state enacts laws for welfare of citizens, law neutral and objective.