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Chapter 7 Management and Marketing.docx

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Tourism Management
David Fennell

Chapter 7 Management and Marketing • Management • Entrepreneurship • Marketing • Tourism is a people industry: tourists, providers, etc. • The product is entirely dependent upon people for its delivery Management Defined: • The process of coordinating work activities • So that an organizations objectives are achieved efficiently with and through people Management Includes… 1. Planning: • Identifying goals and resources to carry out tasks (and completion dates) • Staff planning, promotions planning 2. Organizing resources: • To achieve the goals in an optimum fashion • Examples are organizing new departments, human resources, etc. 3. Leading: • Setting direction for the organization, groups and individuals; to influence people to follow direction • Examples are establishing strategic direction (vision, values, mission and/or goals). 4. Coordinating: • To reach goals and objectives; includes ongoing feedback and monitoring to adjust systems accordingly • Example: use of financial policy measures to avoid risks Functional Management Defined: • Management of an organization into units on the basis of type of work performed • A function is an assigned duty or task • A functional manager is in charge of a major function (department) in the organization • E.g., marketing, sales, engineering and finance Yield (revenue) Management • An unsold seat is lost revenue • Selling the right inventory (hotel room) to the right customer, at the right time, at the right price • Rooms retained at premium rates for those who book late • 5% revenue gains • Over-booking policy Human Resource Management • Employed management focused on the need for human resources to be provided HRM Problems in Latin American Tourism • Poor managerial training • No link between education and tourism sectors • Little private sector investment in training • Poor foreign language training • Poor service delivery training • Poor governmental support for training • Low wages in tourism • Negative attitudes towards service occupations HRM Issues in Small Enterprises (SE) • Fewer than 10 employees • 90% of NZ firms have 15 or fewer employees • Reliance on personal skills and experience SE Strategies… • Creating more family oriented workplace • More flexible work practices • Productivity out of family members • Communication through a common family “language” • Improved trust and loyalties • Informal and efficient decision making Tourism and Entrepreneurship An entrepreneur…… • Undertakes and enterprise • Makes decisions • Controls • Bears the risk • Creative • Innovative 2 Types (Shaw, 2004)… 1. Lifestyle: • Low managerial skills and expertise • Focus on niche products • Limited capital • Independence • Job satisfaction • Environmental factors 2. Business-oriented: • Motivated more by profit • Owners of restaurants and hotels are motivated by profit than B and B’s Growing Small Firms • Usually supported in one way or another by government • Existence • Survival • Success
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