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TREN 2P26- jan 27.docx

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Brock University
Tourism Management

TREN 2P26- Nature-Based Tourism: Jan 27/14 (Eco) Tourism and Environmental Impacts Impacts • Humans modify their environments to suit their needs; why? -Comfort (most extreme- value of one over the value of others) ex/ animals that aren’t displaced become habituated to humans, extinction, increased vulnerability of species, -attributing environmental damage to tourism is difficult… the main problem is that of disentangling the effects of tourism from the effects of human existence (Page & Connell, p.374) -Consistency -Accessibility -Consumption and capitalization Tourism- Environment Relationship • Conflict -Tourism and the Environment are both losing • Coexistence -Tourism or the Environment are losing as a result of the other • Symbiosis -Tourism benefits environment and Environment benefits tourism Why is the environment important for tourism? • The environment is tourism’s resource base • People don’t like traveling to degraded destinations • Environmental degradation can be an indicator or deteriorating economic condition • A healthy economy depends on a healthy environment • Resource based tourism can only thrive with a high environment quality 100% Pure New Zealand • How important is tourism in NZ? -Main source of income in NZ • What are the reasons they embrace sustainable tourism? -Want the environment to go back to the way it was 50 or 100 years ago • What techniques, tools and approaches have they used to remain sustainable? -Stay current and modern, low emission and recycling, sufficient transportation , reforestation, carbon neutral, education (marine diving- marine conservation), educate and influence tourists • What is the relationship between tourism and sustainable development? -symbiotic relationship between environment and tourism industry Greener Airlines • Airbus a380 and a350xwb are the greenest planes ever (wing design, lighter bodies, engines, aerodynamic, 10.5 million litres of fuel per year saved. Habitat Specific Environmental Impacts • Carbon emissions • Noise, water, soil and air pollution • Upleand Heaths/ Tundra -erosion -habitat loss -disturbance to birds • Inland Waters -sewage pollution -eutrophication -oil pollution -animal disturbance • Costal Habitats -habitat loss -loss of ecological diversity -destabilization of sand dunes -erosion of landscape • Marine Waters -pollution/sewage -dumping waste -oil pollution from boats -litter threatening creatures • Agricultural Land -loss of area of production -conflict between agriculture and tourism • Semi-Natural Grasslands -loss of open landscape -habitat loss • Heathlands, Rock Area -habitat loss/fragmentation • Forests -habitat loss/fragmentation -disturbance from recreational activities Tourism Destination Development and the Enviroment Tourism threatens sea turtles Tourism Benefits Turtles -loss of beach nesting areas -Conservation fees/ donations -artificial illumination disorient-Poachers become rangers/guides -noise -traffic -Awareness -pollution -activities in water Major Environmental Impacts in Destinations • Inappropriate Development -occurs as a result of short-term planning in environmental terms -resort development in undeveloped areas with little planning Ex/ Waikiki- high density tourism development • Loss of Natural Habitats and Effects on Wildlife -deforestation -trampling of vegetation/soil -loss of habitat -alteration of feeding habits -mistreatment of animals • Pollution -water quality and sewage are neglected -increased nutrients rob water of oxygen -water-borne diseases (ex/diarrhoea
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