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VISA1Q99 Lecture Notes

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Brock University
Visual Arts
Kristin Patterson

Art Notes Art quiz starts at 5 today, (up to ch.7) close on Saturday, mc and fill in the blanks Egyptian Art Pre-dynastic (c. 5000-2950 BCE) Early Dynasty (c. 2950-2575 BCE) Pharaoh: a king of ancient Egypt Principle of Ma’at or the goddess of Maat: the Egyptian believes that she comes in to bring truth and harmony (balance) after the universe is created. She is married to Thoth and is the daughter of Ra, the sun of god. She also divines orders and set rules. Palette of Narmer, c. 2950 BCE: the (Menes king-Menes god) king Namer is the first king in Egypt, who conquered the lower part and united the two kingdoms. The palette was a votive or a gift offering by the king to his “father”, the god Amun-Ra, or used/reserved for ceremonies. It was found in the temple of Horus, which is the god of ancient king or the sky god; it is depicted as falcon with human hand. The hieroglyphic writing (name of Narmer and description of what is happening in pictographs set within a stylized palace façade) and the decoration on the palette show the viewer a chapter of ancient Egyptian history (informative): the most important figure is always in larger scale (aka. hieratic scale) to show that he is the one in power; the white crown of upper Egypt in the front and at the back, is the red crown of lower Egypt, which is to reinforce the power and to show how upper Egypt is dominating the lower part. The direction of the (bare) feet indicates where the action is taking place, the lines on his leg and arms are an indication of muscles and bones, making him look strong, powerful and solid. He does not look real or nature, more geometric shape to define the body. Ka: the spirit lived on after the death of the body, the ka needed a body to inhabit, either a carved likeness of the deceased or his/her corpse, preserved by mummification Old Kingdom (c. 2575-2150 BCE) Mastaba: a flat-topped, one-story structure with slanted walls erected above an underground burial chamber. Imhotep is the world most famous ancient who build the first pyramid, he is the prime minister and royal advisor who worked for the Third Dynasty King Djoser. He designed a stepped pyramid consisting of 6 mastaba-like elements stacked on top of each other. (Stepped Pyramid of Djoser, Saqqara, c.2667-2648 BCE) it is built with finely cut limestone, rises without ramps and formed protection for the tomb. (From mastaba to pyramid) (Pyramids of khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure, great pyramids, Giza, c. 2575-2450 BCE) most famous are the three great pyramids at Giza, part of tomb complex built by three successive Fourth Dynasty kings Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure. The Great Spinx, Giza, c. 2613-2494: Famous for combining his head with the body of a crouching lion: symbol of strength and power, gives viewers the feeling of control and watching (believed that lions sleep with eyes open), and is strongly associated with the sun. Seated Statue of Khafre, Giza, c. 2520- 2494 BCE: over-life-size statue of Khafe, made with a rare material which glows a deep blue under sunlight, the celestial color of Horus. He is being idealized, look better than real life. He wears the traditional royal clothing: a short kilt, a false beard symbolic of kingship, and folded linen headdress which help recognize him as the pharaoh and the large size is meant to overwhelm the viewers. His arms are pressed tightly to the body, body firmly anchored in the block- emphasize he is the ruler and convey the idea that this is his nation Menkaure and Queen Khamerernebty II, Giza, c.2490-2472 BCE: he is idealized/ stylized, a youthful face and giving a calm and dignified expression. He has the position of authority with the left foot forward and clenched fist to reinforce the power of public. The queen is less important as she is standing slightly backward, she has a much softer curve compared to her husband. The lower body is much more stylized than the upper part, it is just to give viewers a sense of it, not the actual form. Middle Kingdom, c. 1975-1640 BCE New Kingdom, c. 1539-1075 BCE Kneeling Figure of Hatshepsut, Dier el-Bahri, c. 1473-1458 BCE: after the death of Tutmose II, his wife declared ruler by the priests of Amun and she delayed the succession of Tutmose III for 20years. She was represented as a male king, wearing a kilt and headdress, occasionally even a false beard. She also has a muscular chest. It is more important to portray the convention than showing her as a female. Reconstruction Drawing of the Great Temple of Amun, Karnak, c. 1579-1075 BCE: funerary temple for Hatshepsut. It was constructed on 3levels connected by ramps and fronted by colonnades (rows of columns). Drawing hypostyle hall, Great Temple of Amun, c. 1292-1190 BCE: The colonnades led to a hypostyle hall, closely built columns and densely packed space, only a few people are allowed to enter. Akhenaten and his family, from Akhetaten, c. 1353-1336: use of sunken relief, which is craved into the flat surface. He looks more feminize rather than masculine, seems to be more approachable and caring. The queen has more power and authority than the past. Tutmose, Nefertiti, c. 1353-1336 BCE: it shows a bit of the human features, such as the crease of the eyes. Ancient Greece Zeus: figure of wisdom and power, god of sky/thunder/order/space Apollo, from temple of Zeus, 5 century BCE: god of the sun/creativity/fine art “Man as measure of all things” Archaic period, c. 600-480 BCE Greek orders: a standard temple that is built for particular god and goddess, refer to tb p112. Archaic sculpture Anavysos Kouros, from cemetery at Anavysos, near Athens, c. 530BCE: represent a young man (a symbol/ type rather than a specific individual), always depicts in nude. He has a gesture similar to the ancient Egyptian pharaoh, who also has clenched fist and left foot forward. However, he is free from a block of stone, much more convincing that he has the potential to move. He does not wear a headdress, but hair still remains stylized. His body is more round and close to naturalistic proportion/organic structure. He has a typical Archaic smile, making him look more real/ lifelike. Peplos Kore, from Athens, c. 530BC: share similar characteristics with the Kouros, the Archaie smile and rounded body and stylized hair. She is supposed to be painted, the red pigments on her lips and hair made her seem more lifelike. Not much attention is paid to the lower part of her body since it is covered with garment. Early Classical Period, 480-450BCE Kritios Boy, c. 480BCE: has the contrapposto pose, in which the left leg became the engaged leg and right leg slightly bended, giving it a more relaxed and lifelike figure. He has lost the Archaic smile, his body is more rounded and lack of muscles, body proportion is more organic. The transition line on his hip helps bring viewers’ eyes from back to front. Warrior from Riace, c. 460-450BCE: it is found in the sea of Riace, Italy. He is tall and his back is deeply carved to depict his muscles structure. The contrapposto is illustrated and the senses of detail on his face e.g. sliver teeth, illustrating the intense desire to make it ideal and naturalization. Has the posture of holding a spear in his right hand. Loss wax process High classical Period, c. 450-400 BCE Polykleitos, Doryphoros or spear-bearer, 450-440BCE: tree trunk as supporting element (stability), mathematical definition of beautiful as it applied to the human figure. He carried the characteristic of the Kritios Boy, contrapposto, but with an exaggeration of “S” shaped. On page126 Parthenon, Athens, 447-432BCE: reconstruction of the temple under the leader Perikles, it is designed and built by architects Kallikrates and Iktinos, and the sculptor is Phidias. The temple is dedicated to Virgin Athena, goddess of wisdom and civilization as an economic safeguard for the city. It follows the Doric order. Made optical refinement of the temple to give it a sense of levity and sense of perfection/ beauty, both the base and the entablature are made slightly curve instead of straight lines. The sculpture in the round filled both pediments of the Parthenon. On the east pediment, the ensemble illustrated the birth of Athena. In terms of clothing and development, the draperies are more in advance, give you little sense of body underneath but convey a sense of movement and there’s a new kind of interaction between figures as they are lending on one another. The exterior Doric frieze included 92 carved metopes with scenes of victory. Lapith Fighting a Centaur, c. 447-432 BCE: battle of violence and power, it is not convincing that it is in a battle in terms of posture, beauty is the key element and it is more important to show the trials of the Lapith and the Centaur. Late Classical Period (400-323 BCE) Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos, 350 BCE: it was improper to show women in nude, it is considered as a scandal. However, there’s one exception, which is the goddess of love. The original piece has lost, however, many roman copies managed to survive. Her head is smaller in relation to the body, she has a signature Venus pudica posture, in which she is slightly covering herself. Hellenistic Period (323-31 BCE) Hellenistic Painting/Mossaic st Battle of Issos, actual date of battle: 333BCE, date of mosaic: 1 century CE: mosaic (a picture created from tesserae, small cubes of colored stone/marble, the color of the stone is very limited though). The mosaic has a sense of settings, and strong sense of movement and emotion. There’re number of diagonal lines presented in the horses’ limbs, which act as an element of action. The limbs of trees do not only reinforce the sense of motion, but also point at the main character, Alexander. Opus vermiculatum (“worm-work”) Hellenistic Sculpture st Market Women, Roman copy of 1 century CE: there is an expression of age, viewers feel the sense of biography that goes along with the character. Nike (Victory) of Samothrace, 180 BCE: the swelling draperies and extension of her wings on the back demonstrate the way she is moving against the wind. Can almost feel the softness of her belly. She represents strength and speed. The sculpture activates the space around it and it is meant to excite the viewers. Hellenistic Architecture Altar of Zeus from Pergamon, c. 175-150 BCE: the pergamon frieze is carved in high relief with deep undercutting that creates dramatic contrasts of light and shadow. Eumenes II (ruled 197-159BCE), gigantomachy Roman Republic The pagan god most often associated with Christ in early Christian representations was Osiris-Dionysus. Denarius with portrait of Julius Caesar, 44BCE: wisdom of age, portrays man as older, can see the aging lines around his forehead and eye, verism Patrician Carrying Two Portrait Busts of his ancestors, end 1 century BCE: The heads he is holding belong to two ancestors,(paterfamilias: the head of a household who has the most authority) saying these important people are part of the family, ages show wisdom and knowledge, is not his original head st Pont du Gard, near Nimes, France, Late 1 century BCE: this was an aqueduct, which was designed to carry water over the Gard River. It consists of 3 rectangular space openings- arcades, formed by wedge- shaped pieces- voussoirs, locked together by a final piece in the top center- keystone st Augustus of Primaporta, early 1 century CE: a piece of propaganda, having one arm extended, which is to replicate the classical Greece gesture and it is also a typical stand for an emperor, to endorse the capable and idealize ruler - Colosseum: Man to man, man to animal battle, naval battle, public speeches and execution, use concrete to build, less labour is required, which cut down the building cost. - Constantine the Great, Rome, 325 -326CE: the head was marble, body is a mixture of marble and bronze. Hair cut- association with Augustus, as part of his plan to reorganize the empire, the oversized eyes looking upward towards the heavens presages by Byzantine icon portraiture - Arch of Constantine, Rome, 313CE : redraft of Augustus’ head , to associate himself with other emperors, Tuscan style of craving, selective scale-> wants to avoid another civil war and be emperor for both lower and upper classes - Priscilla Catacombs, Rome: spaces to contain body, initial development of Christian, depiction of Christ, “Cross” , “fish” and “XP”, no more than 9.1cm high, connected with stairs, families who are able to afford would have a room - Cubiculum of Leonis, Catacomb of Commodilla, near Rome, late 4 century : place for burial , associated with the Greek god , St. Peter striking rock on the left (act as narrative who tells viewers moral story),on the right halo around Jesus head (iconic, meant to convey a message or an idea), borrowed from western art, Jesus is also printed on the ceiling, he is bearded and looking a bit old, - The good Shepherd, from Asia Minor (modern Turkey) c. 280-290CE: reinterpreted for Christian purposes, they are symbols for Christ and compassion, the shepherd(priest) the accommodation for the sheep - Reconstruction drawing and plan of old saint peter’s basilica, Rome 320-327CE: can hold around 14thousand people, build with money from Constantine, represent peter’s faith and authority, slightly different orientation of the entrance, long central meeting area called nave, aisles on both sides, transept: helps the flow of people during wors
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