Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (640,000)
Brock U (10,000)
WGST (200)
WGST 1F90 (100)
Lecture 1

WGST 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Wartime Elections Act, Wgst, Clan Home

Women's and Gender Studies
Course Code
Jenny Janke

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Riding the Feminist Waves
Lecture outline
Course Reminders
Key Terms
Course Reminders
Negative Feminist Stereotypes Assignment:
3-4 page assignment (excluding title and reference pages)
Explore negative feminist stereotypes, their purpose, and how they reinforce
sexism, racism, and misogyny.
3 to 4 course materials only for this assignment. Use only readings we have
covered thus far.
Time New Roman, 12-point font and APA format required.
Rubric provided on Sakai. Print off and attach. A 2% deduction will apply if
rubric is not attached. Upload to Assignment in order for assignment to be
considered complete by 11:55 PM.
Due: October 17th in lecture.
Print off hard copy.
Course Reading Quote Assignment:
Select one quote from one reading each class. Copy the quote on one side of a piece
of paper and write a brief critical commentary on the back of the paper about why
this quote is meaningful to you. Include the title of the article, the author and
page number of the quote using APA. Date each entry. You should have one piece of
paper for each week
Due in Lecture Nov 14
Key Terms
First and Second Waves.
W.C.T. U.
Maternal (Social) feminism
Equal Rights Feminism
Military Voter’s Act, 1917 Wartime Elections Act, & 1918 Women’s Franchise Act.
Grassroots feminism & Institutionalized Feminism.
Waves metaphor to describe the women’s movement
Currently in the third wave; moving to the fourth
Women’s movement is a complex social movement
Divisions between waves are often artificial;women did not stop organizing, being
active between waves
First Wave Feminism (19th Century—mid 20th century)
The 19th century was a time of activism, reform, and hopes for a more just world
Social purity movements of the 19th century; based on sexist/racist beliefs.
First wave feminists/activists found their roots in the church auxiliaries, local
women’s groups and organizations, or women’s guides
Causes of first wave feminists: kindergarten, women’s jails, homes for prostitutes,
Children’s Aid Society, Home Economics in schools, etc.
Women activists of the 19th century faced harsh criticism
Goals: achieve the same rights for women that men had
Two strategies for their work: maternal feminism (social feminism) and equal rights
find more resources at
find more resources at
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Maternal (Social) Feminism: Religion as An Entry Point to the Public Realm
Religious faith was the underpinning for women’s activism;
Many women used religion as a way to legitimate their activities in the public
Believed women had a moral and biological superiority to men
Superiority should guide their mothering in the home and in the nation
Maternal feminists argued their responsibilities rested not just in improving
women’s lives, but the country
19th Century Separate Realms of Women and Men
Private Realm (Women’s Realm)
Informal Power
Unpaid Labour
Public Realm (Men’s Realm)
Paid labour
Formal power
Union membership
Government power
Economic power
Temperance and Maternal (Social) Feminists
Two early concerns of maternal feminism: temperance and prohibition
Prohibitionists believed alcohol was evil; a moral issue
The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) founded by Letitia Youmans in 1874
Enfranchisement was not an original goal.
No Vote, No Voice
WCTU members realized: without the vote, temperance movement was paralyzed
By 1891, the WCTU formally endorse women’s suffrage at all levels of government
Other organizations that used the maternal or social feminism: YWCA, various
missionary societies, and the Girl’s Friendly Society
Equal Rights Feminists Supporting Sameness (same as men)
Equal rights feminists emphasized women’s sameness as men
Equal rights feminist did not emphasize women’s roles as mother’s to justify their
political activism
Understood certain rights (vote) as human rights
Focused on women’s enfranchisement, property and custody laws, access to education
and guardianship of one’s child
Women’s access to higher education owes a great deal to rights feminists
World War 1 and Feminist Activism
1914: WW1 required women’s work and support (over 35,000 women worked in paid
War provided opportunities for women to participate in public life through:
women volunteered, helped organizations, assist widows and enter the paid labour
Women suffragists also used this time to continue to push for women’s vote on a
national level
War actually helped women in the fight for suffrage
Between the years 1916 and 1925 all provincial governments besides Quebec
acquiesced and granted women the right to vote
find more resources at
find more resources at
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version