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Lecture 13

WGST 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Girl Power, Misogyny, Reproductive Justice

Women's and Gender Studies
Course Code
Jenny Janke

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WGST 1F90 April 3, 2017 Women in Politics
1 | P a g e
1. In what year did *most* Canadian women achieve the vote? - 1919
2. In what year did First Nations women and men achieve the vote? - 1960
3. The UN suggests that for public policy to represent oes eeds, 30% of elected representative must
be women.
1. UN otes that a itial ass of 0-35% representation of women is necessary in order to make significant
poli hages that ill ipoe oes lies.
2. Canada is at approximately 22-25% representations at the federal level. Visible minority women and Aboriginal
women further under represented.
3. ‘epesetatio of oe i Caadas “eate: .% of “eate seats held  oe.
4. Canada's international ranking on women's political representation is currently 54th (as of January 2014).
5. Important Changes Needed:
1) Women need to select themselves.
2) Women need to be selected as candidates by the parties.
3) Women need to be selected by the voters.
6. Difference between numerical and substantive representations.
7. Ho ae oes issues eig addessed? Who speaks fo oe?
8. A hostilit toads oes issues eais.
9. Imagining change is critical to feminism and to activism.
10. We need to be aware of how we can begin doing things differently.
11. Eouagig oes politial effia is a ipotat ethod to pootig eualit.
Why Should Women Be in Politics
1. With women at the table, their issues are more likely to be included in all political discussions.
2. Women also take a different approach to the process and to policy content.
3. Often more inclusive discussions around the table.
4. Presence of women also helps to ensure political behaviour that is more constructive and less adversarial.
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WGST 1F90 April 3, 2017 Women in Politics
2 | P a g e
5. The more women we have with political experience, the more opportunities for women through all levels of
Barriers to Woe’s Political Participation:
1. Multiple ifluees o oes ole i offiial politis; oth stutual ad attitudial ifluees.
2. A willingness on the part of the electorate to increase the representation of women in elected positions exists.
3. A number of factors make it less likely and more difficult for women to run and get elected.
4. Societal definitions of leadership are only one piece of the gender gap puzzle.
5. Fatos that ifluee oes politial patiipatio:
A. Electoral Systems (FPTP system).
B. Parliamentary Systems.
C. Political Culture (climate towards women).
D. Political Party Nomination Process (how leaders are selected opportunities for women).
E. Societal Divisions of Labour the puli s piate eals.
F. Ifluee of Woes Moeet.
Structural Barrier: FPTP
1. Under FPTP voting takes place in single-member constituencies.
2. Voters put a cross in a box next to their favoured candidate and the candidate with the most votes in the
constituency wins.
3. FPTP estits a ostitues hoie of adidates, epesetatios of ioities ad oe suffes.
4. FPTP in Canada and the United States elects one representative per district.
5. In the US, where 90 percent of incumbents are re-elected, fewer chances to modernize the demographic
composition of Congress exist.
6. Countries using some form of a list system of proportional representation elect the most female
Structural Problems:
1. Financial barriers for candidates in the US & Canada are also much higher than most democracies.
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