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Lecture 4

WGST 1F90 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Computer Engineering, Pink-Collar Worker, Blue-Collar Worker

Women's and Gender Studies
Course Code
Jenny Janke

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WGST 1F90 February 3, 2016
Key Terms
1. Feminization of Poverty
2. Feminist Approaches to FOP
3. LICO (Low Income Cut-Off)
4. Labour market segregation.
5. Three Contributing Factors for the FOP
6. Three Structural Reasons for the FOP
7. Nine groups of women who experience poverty at higher rates.
1. Poverty is one of the most significant barriers to womens full equality.
2. Affects women locally, provincially, nationally and internationally.
3. Women experience poverty at Higher rates and they severely suffer the effects of poverty.
4. Feminization of poverty is a direct result of structural barriers.
5. Patriarchal capitalism has locked women into specific forms of labour.
6. Race, status, gender, ethnicity, age, sexuality, and ability impact one’s chances of living in poverty.
7. Education does not always prevent poverty for women.
A Feminist Approach to Poverty
1. A feminist approach to poverty focuses on the gender implications and social costs of poverty. They include:
A. Growing involvements of women and children in the informal economy.
B. Inequality in paid labour.
C. Differential treatment of girls and boys in households.
D. Pressure to get girls married off quickly.
E. Higher school drop out rates for girls.
F. Less control over fertility.
2. Feminist approach begins with the understanding that pervasive gender inequalities and biases within
households, labor markets, legal codes, and political systems throughout the world, render women more
vulnerable than men to poverty.
Women and Poverty Worldwide
1. According to UNIFEM: Women are more likely than men to be poor and at risk of hunger because of the
systematic discrimination they face in education, health care, employment and control of assets.
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2. Poverty implications are widespread:
3. Poverty is a lack of resources, capabilities, freedom commonly called the dimensions of poverty.
4. UNIFEM suggests that women represent approximately 70 percent of the world’s poor.
5. Women face persistent discrimination when they apply for credit for business or self-employment and are
often concentrated in precarious work.
6. Eight out of ten women workers are considered to be in vulnerable employment in sub-Saharan Africa and
South Asia: global economic changes are taking a huge toll on their livelihoods.
7. Economic policies and institutions still mostly fail to take gender disparities into A/C, from tax budgets
systems to trade regimes.
Women’s Land and Property Rights
1. Women’s property rights are limited by social norms, customs and at times legislation, hampering their
economic status and opportunities to overcome poverty.
2. Even when women constitute the majority of small farmers and do more than 75 percent of the agricultural
work, they are routinely denied the right to own the land they cultivate.
3. Ownership of land and property empowers women and provides income and security.
4. In regions of conflict, the impacts of unequal land rights have particularly serious consequences for women.
5. The Beijing Platform for Action affirmed that womens right to inheritance and ownership of land and
property, should be recognized.
6. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) has pushed for
agrarian reform processes.
7. UNIFEM advocates for women’s land and property rights as part of its core strategy to enhance women’s
economic security and rights and reduce feminized poverty.
8. Focus on ensuring that women benefit from equal rights to property under the law, as well as in actual
practice at the grassroots level.
Defining Poverty in Canada
1. LICO: Low Income Cut Off: families or persons not in economic families spend 20% more than average of their
before tax income on food, shelter and clothing . Example: For 2011, the 1992 based after-tax LICO for a family
of four living in an community with a population between 30,000 and 99,999 is $30,487, expressed in current
2. LICO popularly known Canadas poverty line determines who owns property.
3. Varies depending on urban/rural/family size.
4. The Canadian Council on Social Development reports that, Persons and families living below these income
levels are considered to be living in "straitened circumstances.
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