WGST 1F90 October 31, 2013
Quiz. Next week…Next weeks lecture might be on the quiz. Page | 1
1. Gender (femininity and masculinity) are socially constructed and reinforced on many fronts: media, family,
peers, schools, education system, socio-political policies, and religion.
2. We have ideas of what it it means to “be” a man or woman in the West – we judge accordingly and are judged
by these norms.
3. Gender is more than a performance sexuality and gender are tightly connected.
4. Our ideas/assumptions about sexuality are tightly bound to our gender assumptions.
5. Sexuality is a form of power that exists regardless of one’s sexual identity.
6. Sexuality is an organizing principle of social life and not just the property of individuals.
7. Wide range of meanings associated with sexualities and identities. Schooled in Straight:
1. Schools are an important forces in the lives of youth; serve to reinforce ‘normalcy’.
2. Issue of bullying is important to schools—formal and informal curriculum and as the sites of bullying.
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3. Schools are also sites that reinforce heterosexism – sexuality as the legitimate form of sexuality.
4. Curriculum focuses heavily on hetero-relations; reproduction (avoidance) is central focus. Little attention to
5. Little full discussion of same-sex relationships.
6. Heterosexual privilege in schools; hetero students can show affection, attend dances/prom, do not fear
violence due to sexuality, curriculum reflects their experiences.
7. Examples of hidden curriculum: Access to certain spaces is hostile or unwelcoming to trans youth (i.e.
washrooms, change rooms, etc.).
8. Adults do not often address sexuality, mental health, drug use, and fears amongst ‘out’ youth.
9. Language amongst youth focuses on hetero norms: i.e., ‘fag’ discourse.
Homophobia/Transphobia & Heterosexism
1. Homophobia & transphobia include a range of feelings and behaviours from discomfort and fear to disgust,
hatred and violence.
2. Homophobia: the fear of being perceived as gay or the fear of those who are gay – functions as a form of
3. Personal homophobia: personal beliefs and prejudices.
4. Interpersonal homophobia: (harassment and individual discrimination): (harassment and individual
discrimination) involves individual behaviours based on those personal beliefs.
5. Institutional homophobia: includes the ways that governments, organizations, some religions, businesses and
other institutions discriminate against people on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity. 6. Cultural homophobia (heterosexism): refers to societal values and “norms” that privilege heterosexuality
over all other forms of gender expression and sexual orientation.
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How Homophobia Structures/Underscores Masculinity:
1. Homophobia is the greatest secret of American manhood (Kimmel, 2005).
2. Being afraid of other men and being exposed by other men as inadequate, feminine and unmanly becomes
the organizing principle of homophobia.
3. Homophobia structures masculinity.
4. It is the fear of now measuring up, of not being seen as a ‘real’ man; sense of contempt.
by Tijana Mamula (2011)
1. How is homophobia normalized? Heterosexism?
2. What are the covert and overt messages about sexuality? Masculinity? Femininity?
What is Heterosexism?
1. Heterosexism: based on societal values