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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 _ Garden and Park & Later 20th centuy cities.docx

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Carleton University
Architecture Urban
ARCU 3100
Yves Gosselin

Lecture 9 – Garden and Park March 19 2013 Originso f the garden • Mesopotamia’s hanging gardnes of Babylon • Passed on to Greece and Rome though they weren’t really known for garden design • Hadrian’s Villa is considered to be the precedent Hadrian’s Villa as precedent • Like most patricians, they developed a secondary residence away from Rome that became an oasis for him and hi entourage during the hot summer months • Very much inspired by what they saw in the middle east The Arab/Islamic Influnece • Really pokes antiquity • Originates from the Middle East th • The spread of Islamd that begun in the 8 Century will reach Europe via Spain • Arab/Islamic garden design will be introduced in Spain and will be present in the castles of the rulers • When the Christian Kings reconuer Spain, they wil maintain the garden as a central elements • The Arab world invaded Spain and Portugal going through the lower part of the Mediterranean – occupied c.50% of Spain and significant portion of Portugal for a few hundred years • The Christian Spanish Kings eventually conquered this area and pushed back the Arabs • The cities an castle that had been built by the Arabs were essentially beautiful gardens The Alhambra – Grenada, Spain • Had Islamic elements Overall Plan Plan of Various Corutyeards • The design is based off a series of courtyards featuring different names and elements based off Islamic tradition The Alhambra – The Poetrics of Gardens • Elements separated – water elements, structural elements, etc Role of Water – Alhambra • The use of water is extremely important due to the dry climate • Use of fountains, the sound of it – everything significant • Water used as symbolic element • Sophistication compared to the muddy and crowded medieval cities Importance of Shade – Alhambra • Trees used for this A variety of spaces with different character • Done through plants, layout, quality of detailing, the sound through water, the scent, the colour etc The Italian Renaissance • The influence flowing throught eh Spanish Kingdom will go through various form of diplomacy • People of the Christian world will travel • The Italian Renaissance will be the first area where this will be influenced through design • These include: enclosure, orthogonal layout, perspective, axiality, physical and visual links to the villa o The tradition in terms of Hadrian’s villa will also reappear during the Renaissance • It will emulate the Ideal City • Examples of Italian Gardens o Villa Doria Pamfili o Villa Campi o Villa Albini o Villa Pratolino The Villa Lante • Importance of axiality • Relationship between garden and villa • The garden is defined with specific perimeters that are usually walled Villa d’Este • Most famous one Étienne Dupérac – Gardens at the Villa Este • Example of how knowledge was passed on from one place to another Villa d’Este • Many striking views from the site outwards • Gardens used for entertainment as well • Presence of water also important • A design that’s contained nad controlled – inspired by the Renaissance • The one hundred fountains wall striking • Use of water reflective too – use of water changes in terms of scale between Italy and France The French Garden and Park • The same design principles will be used but the scale is different • i.e. Versailles – the element of the French ego of demonstrating a mastery over nature • bigger and flahsier and greater emphasis on aesthetics to show this dominance • France generally has a climate more similar to Italy, but winters in the north are much colder • Idea of the visual engagement with the horizon – the walls disappear and it appears to extend out to infinity • All because the French court is about showing off – the garden becomes a stage set for narcissism of how to be seen by others Royal Chateau de Fontainebleau • Just outside Paris • Everyting bigger and broader – constrained room of Italian garden gone • More flamboyant Chateau de Villandry, Loire Valley • The elements of the vegetable garden is all part of the design o It’s both practical and aesthetic through patterning Winter scene in Villandry • Patterns appear in different manner – cover of snow Aerial views of Villandry • Emphasize geometric control that can be broken down into separate elements – i.e. garden is separated from just trees o Has overall unity though • Use of scale to demonstrate control over nature • National historic site – specialized gardeners are required to maintain the design intent Chateau de Chenonceau, Loire Valley • Spans the river and has an elevated French formal garden around extended grounds • Very dramatic in how it occupies the actual river itself The English Romantic Park • French garden design will dominate for a few hundred years – influencing styles are a reflection of power • The British will become a world power and will modify garden design • Strives to achieve a painterly effect • It refers to a romantic vision of antiquity and its relationship to nature in opposition to the City • Whereas the French would have a very dominant court, the English, because of their parliamentary system, had a different approach • Their relationship itht eh land is more tangible • They adopt a viewt o nature that they want to harness it, and be sympathetic towards it • They will be influenced by Roman antiquity and Romantic vision of that antiquity • The Romantic approach is still the dominant view today in garden design • In the 19 century, due to industrialization, the approach will give rise to the first public park Bleinheim Castle, England • Changes from French to English • By Capability Brown • Some of the formal elements preserved Versailles • The precedent to early English garden Bleinheim Estate • Front façade of castle • Man made lake – though it seems like capturing a moment in the landscape and that nature was responsible, it was actually designed • Lake achieves painterly affects – trees also planted in particular areas too for this reason Studley Royal Garden and Water Park Moon Ponds • Geometric and artificial The deer park/St. Mary’s Church The Weir • In order to control elevation and create movement within water Different views of grounds at Studley Royal Park • Architectural Follies – what was new to architectural design
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