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Department
Art History
Course
ARTH 2601
Professor
Carol Payne
Semester
Fall

Description
Pierce’s Semiotics – 3 Types of Signs ­ Icon ­ Symbol ­ Index Photographs, even when they disguise the way they media reality, they DO mediate  reality all the time. Portraits: Portraits and Institutions th ­ was the photographic portrait in the 19  century a democratizing influence or was  it a tool of surveillance and social control? Kodak became a tool that opened photography up to more and more people. Camera was a tool in concord with lots of formal changes within society: urbanization,  how they thought about identity, etc.  John Tagg: “The portrait is therefore a sign whose purpose is both the description of an individual  and the inscription of social identity.” Social Identity: Though facebook pics Perform identity Portraits & Phrenology Phrenology was studying the cranial shape to give you information about a character.  th According to Galton’s theory in late 19  century, that you could identify a persons  character by their appearance. *Francis Galton, composite Images of Criminals. Idea of reading a face or a head. JT Zealy, jack, 1850’s. Daguerreotype. Were commissioned daguerreotype to be taken in frontal and profile views. Became  systematized in mugshot views. Agacy commissioned these images for different racial  creation. Apposed to slavery, but images like these sort of fed into defenses.  Treating human individuals like physical specimens. 
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