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Carleton University
BIOL 1003
Elizabeth Nisbet

Lymphocytes (6-18µm)  Spherical nucleus and shape, very little cytoplasm  Memory cells have specific antigen receptors on the cell surface  Lymphocytes vary in life span. Some live few days, others many years  Only white blood cells that return to blood stream after migrating to tissues Monocytes (12-20µm)  Oval, horseshoe or kidney shaped nucleus; more cytoplasm than lymphocytes  Nucleus does not stain as darkly as lymphocytes in blood smears  After leaving circulatory system, they differentiate into macrophages in connective tissues Granulocytes  Lobed nucleus and granular cytoplasm  Different functions: some engulf bacteria; others are involved with allergies and inflammation Blood clotting  If blood vessels are damaged a series (cascade) of enzyme-control reactions occurs to form a clot o Prevents further blood loss o Prevents invasion by pathogens  IMG 3-12-3  Clotting depends on clotting factors which are plasma enzymes  They are present as an inactive form in blood plasma  They are named with roman numerals e.g. Factor V  Haemophilia is an inherited disease. Patients make non functional Factor VIII  Serotonin causes smooth muscle of the arterioles to contract / narrows blood vessels, cutting off the blood flow to damaged area Blood vessels Arteries  Pulmonary artery o Transport deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle into lungs  Systemic arteries o Transport oxygenated blood from left ventricle to body tissues o About 10% of total blood volume is in systemic arterial system at any given time o Blood is pumped from the left ventricle into large elastic arteries o Elastic arteries become smaller muscular arteries o Musc
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