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heart disease2.docx

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Carleton University
BIOL 1003
Elizabeth Nisbet

Smoking  Reduces levels of antitoxidants (vitamins), more damage due to release of free radials by phagocytes  Nicotine constricts arteries causes platelets to stick together → vasoconstriction → heart must work harder to force blood through → increases blood pressure [EXAM]  Raises conc. of fibrinogen (in blood) → increased risk of clotting  Higher blood pressure causes damage to blood vessel lining/endothelium/collagen [EXAM] o Leads to rise on blood platelets and makes them more sticky/form a plug/adhere to collagen fibres o Release of thromboplastin/thrombokinase o Fibrinogen converted to insoluble fibrin o Platelet plug trapped by fibrin mesh  Raises blood cholesterol by causing a rise in LDLs in blood  Carbon monoxide reduces the efficiency of the blood in terms of carrying oxygen o Haemoglobin combines with CO more readily than with oxygen → forms carboxyheamoglobin o Associated with plaque formation  Principle CHD = heart muscle receives inadequate amount of blood or oxygen/(coronary) blood supply reduced Treatment  Lower blood pressure o Drugs which regulate heart rate/beat - prevent abnormal rhythms (beta blockers) o
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