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menstrual 2.docx

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BIOL 1003
Elizabeth Nisbet

Milk production  Progesterone inhibits prolactin  At birth, progesterone levels fall → prolactin levels increase  Breastfeeding promotes production of milk by positive feedback o Nerve impulses travel to hypothalamus o Stimulates pituitary gland to secrete oxytocin and prolactin o The more milk is removed, the more hormones are secreted  Oxytocin o Stimulates contraction of milk ducts → squeezes milk out  Prolactin o Stimulates milk production o Inhibits secretion of FSH and LH → prevents ovulation → less likely to conceive Contraception Hormones  99% effective (<1:100 women will get pregnant in a year)  Progestogen-only pill o Thickens cervical mucus → reduces sperm motility o Inhibits LH production → may prevent ovulation (depends on dose)  Combined pill (oestrogen + progestogen) o Oestrogen inhibits FSH production → prevents follicular development o Taken for 21 days - withdrawal bleed for the last 7 days o Reduce risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer o Higher risk of thrombosis in smokers  Long-acting progestogen can be given for up to 3mo by injection  Morning-after pill o Contains high doses of progestogen o Works for up to 72h after intercourse - works best within 12h IUD  99% effective  Small plastic and copper device  Inserted into uterus for up to 10yrs  Mechanism o Stimulates release of prostaglandins by endometrium o Copper kil
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