BIOL 1004 Lecture Notes - Exhalation, Fundamental Frequency, Lamina Propria

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Published on 28 Jan 2013
Larnyx and Speech
I. Functions
a. Protection of respiratory tract (s.t. food/saliva/etc don’t get into respiratory tract)
b. Assistance controlling intra-thoacic pressure (can close off airway => increased
thoracic pressure (for straining or coughing)
c. Production of sound (via vocal folds
II. Structure
a. Cartilaginous Framework
i. Thyroid, cricoid, & arytenoid cartilage, epiglottis, & hyoid bone
ii. Arytenoid cartilage—has vocal process (where vocal fold attaches) &
muscle process
b. Membranes & Ligaments
i. membrane==general term for sheet of tissue
ii. ligament==often just thickening of membranes
iii. Thyrohyoid membrane—between hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage
iv. Quadrangular membrane—between thyroid cartilage and vocal folds
* False vocal fold—inferior edge of quadrangular membrane
v. Cricothyroid membrane = cricovocal mem = conus elasticus
c. Musculature
i. Extrinsic Muscles
1. Suprahyoids (digastric, myohyoid, stylohyoid, geniohyoid); raise
the larynx
2. Infrahyoids (sternothyroid, omohyoid, sternohyoid,
thyrohyoid); lower the larynx
3. Fxn: raise/lower larynx, stabilize hyoid (so tongue can move), used
in swallowing
ii. Intrinsic Muscles
1. Adductors
a. Transverse & oblique arytenoids—adduct arytenoids
b. Lateral Cricoarytenoids—spin & slide arytenoids =>
adduction of vocal folds
2. Abductors
a. Posterior cricoarytenoids—move arytenoids apart =>
vocal fold abduction
3. Adjustors
a. Cricothyroid muscle—pulls/tips thyroid cartilage down
and slides it forward (inn. by external laryngeal n)
b. Thyroarytenoid & vocalis muscle—adduct folds, slacken
folds, and change their shape (bring together parts of folds)
i. Vocalis is medial-most portion of thyroarytnoid m.
ii. Fibers of both mm. run ~ same direction
d. Of note: folds become stiffer from epithelium → vocalis muscle & near
connections of vocal fold to surrounding cartilage (arytenoids & thyroid
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